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Best home remedy for pink eye


best home remedy for pink eye

Treatment ranges from simple over-the-counter or at-home remedies to prescriptions for antihistamines, antivirals or antibiotics to be applied. Primary Remedies Apis mellifica This remedy relieves swollen eyelids with itching, relieved by cold compresses. Argentum nitricum Swelling with yellowish or. Aloe Vera medical properties can be your best treatment for Apollo eye infection. “Adults prefer effective methods to get rid of the infections.

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Conjunctivitis

Treatment of conjunctivitis

Conjunctivitis usually gets better within a week or two without any treatment, but it can last longer and you may need specialist help. Allergic conjunctivitis will usually get better within a few hours once you’re away from the source of your reaction.

You can ask your pharmacist for advice on what might help ease your symptoms. They’ll advise you about any over-the-counter treatments such as eye drops or antihistamines that might help. The type of treatment you may need will vary depending on what’s causing your conjunctivitis.

Your GP may not be able to prescribe treatments for conjunctivitis unless you’ve already tried treatments from your pharmacy.

Self-help

Try not to scratch or rub your eyes as you may make your symptoms worse.

To help ease the discomfort of conjunctivitis, you may find it helps to put a cool facecloth soaked in water on your eyes to soothe them. Wipe away any discharge from your eyelids and lashes with cotton wool soaked in cooled boiled water. Use a separate piece of cotton wool for each eye.

You can buy lubricant eye drops over the counter from a pharmacist. These may help to relieve discomfort too.

If you use contact lenses, don’t wear them until your conjunctivitis has completely cleared up and wear glasses until it does. If you’re taking a treatment for conjunctivitis, wait a further 24 hours after you’ve finished it to wear contact lenses again. If you wear disposable lenses, use a fresh set.

If you have allergic conjunctivitis, the best thing you can do is try to avoid what you’re allergic to. For instance, if you’re allergic to house dust mites, it might help reduce your symptoms if you change your bedding regularly and use synthetic pillows and acrylic duvets. If your conjunctivitis is caused by an allergy to pollen, there are ways to ease the symptoms of hay fever.

Medicines

You may need to try several combinations of medicines until you find the one that suits you best.

Medicines for viral conjunctivitis

There aren’t any antiviral medicines that work on the viruses that cause conjunctivitis so try the self-help measures while it clears up.

If your eyes are feeling very irritated, lubricating eye drops may help to soothe them. Sometimes, the cornea (the clear part at the front of your eye) is also affected and this, in turn, may affect your vision. If this happens, it’s important to see a specialist who can diagnose this and prescribe you a course of steroid eye drops, which usually helps.

Antibiotics for bacterial conjunctivitis

Conjunctivitis usually gets better on best home remedy for pink eye own, and you won’t need antibiotics. If your conjunctivitis is caused by a virus, which is often the case, antibiotics are no use at all. This is why your GP will probably suggest waiting for a week to see if your conjunctivitis gets better on its own. If it doesn’t, and you have tried over-the-counter medicines, they may suggest you use antibiotic eye drops (or ointment).

You can buy an antibiotic called chloramphenicol from a pharmacy, so you can treat yourself without needing to go through your GP. Your pharmacist will advise whether it’s suitable for you.

If you have an eye infection caused by the bacteria Chlamydia, or wear contact lenses, your GP may prescribe you antibiotic tablets and eye drops. If they think antibiotics are the best option for you, they’ll explain why.

Medicines for allergic conjunctivitis

Antihistamine medicines or eye drops may help if you have allergic conjunctivitis. These should work quickly to give you some relief from your symptoms.

Allergic conjunctivitis can also be treated with a type of medicine called mast cell stabilisers. These come as eye drops. Some types of mast cell stabiliser are available over the counter from a pharmacy.

Mast cell stabilisers are more effective for long-term relief of allergic conjunctivitis best home remedy for pink eye may take a few weeks to start working. You can take antihistamines at the same time as mast cell stabilisers. These will give you some relief while you wait for the mast cell stabilisers to work.

If your inflammation is severe and the treatments above aren’t working, a specialist may prescribe you a short course of steroid eye drops.

Always read the patient information that comes with your medicine and, if you have any questions about your medicines, ask your pharmacist or doctor.

Источник: https://www.bupa.co.uk/health-information/eyes-sight/conjunctivitis

5 Natural Remedies For Pink Eye

Natural Remedies For Pink Eye

There are three reasons to love pink eye:

1. It’s a nice break from giving the stink eye. Gotta mix things up, you know?

2. You can use it to repel awkward interactions – “Don’t come near, I’m CONTAGIOUS!”

3. Sorry, that’s all I’ve got. Who actually loves pink eye???

Fortunately, there are several natural remedies for pink eye out there that mamas swear by. Today I’m going to share them with you, along with studies I’ve found related to each remedy. But first, let’s ask one very important question. . .

What Causes Pink Eye? ^

Like ear infections, most cases of pinkeye are viral in nature. However, some are bacterial and others are actually an allergic response.

Viral Pink Eye Is…

  • Typically marked by clear, watery drainage
  • Contagious
  • Likely to start in one eye and move to the other
  • Not treatable with antibiotics. “Most viral pinkeye cases have no specific treatment – you just have to let the virus run its course, which is usually four to seven days” (1)
  • Often somewhat alleviated by some of the comfort measures listed below. Immune system support may also be helpful.
  • Often difficult to discern from bacterial pink eye (2)(3)

Bacterial Pink Eye Is. . .

  • Typically marked by greenish yellow drainage
  • Contagious
  • Likely to start in one eye and move to the other
  • Usually treated with antibiotic eye drops. Some who prefer to avoid antibiotics use some of the natural approaches below.
  • Often difficult to discern from viral pink eye (2)(3)

Allergic Pink Eye is. . .

  • “Allergic pinkeye (caused by seasonal pollens, animal dander, cosmetics, and perfumes) and chemical pinkeye (from chemicals or liquids, including bleach and furniture polish) are not contagious.” (1)
  • Clear, watery drainage is typical
  • Usually involves both eyes

“Allergic pinkeye symptoms should improve once the allergen source is removed and the allergy is treated. Chemical pinkeye requires prompt washing of the affected eye(s) for five minutes and an immediate call to the doctor.” (1) Treatments for the allergy may include an antihistamine. Nettle capsules or tea are considered by many to be a natural antihistamine, and preliminary studies suggest that this may indeed be the case. (4)

Of course, these descriptions are general in nature and may not apply in all situations. We’ll get to some natural remedies for pinkeye in just a sec, but first please keep in mind that “Best Boo-Boo Kisser South Of Puckett’s Gas Station” is about as official as things get for me professionally. I am not a doctor, this is not medical advice, these statements have not been evaluated by the FDA and are not meant to diagnose, treat, or cure any disease, and your medical decisions are completely up to you. If you need some convincing on this, read my full disclaimer where I say it over and over again. Okay, moving on!

Natural Home Remedies for Pink Eye - Inflamed, crusty eyes? Here are 5 home remedies moms swear by. Plus the difference between viral, bacterial, and allergic pinkeye.

Natural Remedies For Pink Eye ^

Because pink eye can best home remedy for pink eye highly contagious, it is usually recommended that individuals address both eyes even if only one has irritation.

Honey

Frank Dougan of Glasgow spent eight years searching for relief from blepharitis, a chronic bacterial infection of the eyelid. ‘Lots of doctors gave me eyes [sic] drops, I have a whole fridge full and I have spent a fortune but nothing worked,’ he told best home remedy for pink eye UK-based Daily Mail. (5)

So what did finally work? According to Frank, it was a jar of honey from the local Tesco. His optician confirmed that she was no longer able to find any traces of blepharitis.

Countless studies have affirmed honey’s beneficial properties. In fact, according to a Cochrane analysis of 19 clinical trials, this pantry staple may work better than antibiotic creams for burns. (6) Here’s how I use it in my first aid kit.

So what do we know about its effectiveness with pink eye? I am not aware of any studies that have directly looked at this issue, however, there are a few studies that have explored the use of honey for various eye irritations. Here’s what they concluded:

Studies that may support the use of honey for some kinds of eye irritation

In one study, the application of honey significantly reduced the number of bacteria found on and around the eye in patients that suffer from dry eyes. (7)

Another analysis notes that honey is being ” ‘rediscovered’ by the medical profession, particularly where conventional modern therapeutic agents have failed. Recently published reports describe the effectiveness of honey in rapidly clearing wound infection with minimal adverse effects, and also possible in promoting healing with minimal scar formation. Honey also has antimicrobial action against a broad spectrum of bacteria and fungi, both in laboratory studies and in humans. Its use in the eye ranges from treating post-herpetic corneal opacities, local conjunctival lesions and corneal edema with variable results.” (8, emphasis mine)

Also, though it is not a study, “there is evidence that the ancient Egyptians used honey to treat eye diseases, the Greek philosopher Aristotle is credited with being among the first to record medicinal use of honey for the eyes as far back as 350 B.C. Honey was also widely used in India to treat eye disease and has been used by traditional healers in Mali to prevent scarring of the cornea in cases of measles. There is also evidence that honey was used by the medieval English to treat eye diseases.” (9) (10)

What kind of honey is best?

The exact type of honey used in the studies mentioned above was not specified. However, in the world of natural remedies I know manuka honey is often sought because it contains high levels of the compound dihydroxyacetone. However, I didn’t have any on hand when I woke up with pink, irritated eyes last year so I used this instead.

How I use it:

Ingredients:

  • 1/4 teaspoon raw honey
  • 1/4 cup distilled or reverse osmosis water (or water that has been boiled for 5 minutes and allowed to cool)
  • pinch of sea salt (optional – this is what I use)

Instructions:

Dissolve raw honey and optional salt in pure warm water. Don’t get the water too hot or it may alter some of the beneficial properties of the honey. Using a clean dropper, place a 1-2 drops in each eye every few hours as needed.

Breast Milk

According to one article, a “particular antibody in the breast milk, called immunoglobulin A, prevents the pink eye bacteria from attaching to the mucosal surface of the eye. This limits the growth of the bacteria, helping to end the eye infection.” (11)

So what does the clinical data say? Although there are no studies that address pink eye directly, this article examines three studies that look at the impact of colostrum on newborn eye infections. The antimicrobial properties of colostrum and breast milk are well-documented and there does seem to be some evidence of benefit for use with eye infections, but at least one of the studies where the evidence seems overwhelmingly positive was not well constructed.

On the other hand, moms swear by it.

Bonus awesome breast milk fact: A few years ago researchers noticed that cancerous lung cells in a test tube died on contact with breast milk, so they isolated the key compound responsible and began injecting it into tumors. So far, trials with rats have shown that “after just seven weeks a highly invasive brain cancer called glioblastoma was seven times smaller in those treated with HAMLET [the nickname for the breast milk compound].” (12)

How to use it

Using a clean spoon, place a few drops onto the surface of the eye. “Lift your eyelid slightly to help the breast milk circulate underneath. Continue this treatment three times a day for a couple of days, or until the eye infection has cleared. If your symptoms persist or worsen, though, seek medical advice.” (13)

Colloidal Silver

Natural Remedies For Pink Eye: Colloidal SIlver

The use of silver solutions for eye infections is nothing new. Until the creation of erythromycin, an antibiotic ointment, silver nitrate drops were routinely used in newborn’s eyes to prevent certain types of bacterial infection. In some hospitals, they are still used, but most doctors prefer the ointment because silver nitrate can cause irritation. (Please note that in mentioning its routine use in newborns is not an endorsement. I recommend that you research before consenting to it or any other newborn procedure.)

Silver nitrate is created by combining silver with nitric acid, while colloidal silver contains only silver particles suspended in water. It is my understanding that colloidal silver is generally considered less irritating.

What have doctors said about it? Not much it seems, however, I did find a few comments from M.D.’s who said simply best home remedy for pink eye their patients swear by it and that it might be worth trying. (13) (14)

According to Ray Sahelian, M.D., “I have come across several people who swear that colloidal silver — when used as eye drops 1-2 drops 3 to 4 times a day– quickly healed their conjunctivitis or sty, or reduced the severity of pharyngitis when gargled in water. Perhaps colloidal silver is effective against viruses and some bacteria. So, considering all factors, if I were to make a decision, I would say colloidal silver is worth a try for a few days in cases of conjunctivitis or sty or perhaps other mild infections, but it should not be used for longer than one week at a time. Its use should be done under medical supervision by a health care provider who is familiar with its properties. I, personally, have not used it with patients.”

Wondering if colloidal silver is safe? I like Emily Bartlett, LAc’s take on it.

How to use it

As referenced by Dr. Ray Sahelian, M.D. in the quote above, those who rave about this remedy typically say they use 1-2 drops of 5-10 ppm (that’s the concentration) colloidal silver in each eye three to four times per day.

Natural Remedies For Pink Eye - Tea

Herbal Tea Poultices

According to Prescription For Nutritional Healing, “Calendula, chamomile, fennel and/or eyebright teas can be used to make hot compresses. Eyebright can also be taken orally in capsule or tea form. It is good for any eye irritation or inflammation. The tea can also be used to rinse the eyes.”

Caution: Do not use chamomile or calendula if you are allergic to ragweed. Some sources, such as Prescription For Nutritional Healing, say not to use during pregnancy or nursing. (p. 421) However, many herbalists and OB-GYN’s say chamomile is perfectly fine during pregnancy and while nursing. (15)

Some individuals add a pinch of salt to their tea as it brews to boost the astringent quality of the poultice.

How to use it

According to some sources, distilled water is recommended because any impurities in water could exacerbate the infection. You can find instructions for making chamomile and calendula eye soothers at Mother Earth News.

In Prescription for Natural Cures: A Self-Care Guide For Treating Health Problems With Natural Remedies, which was also written James F. Balch, M.D., along with Mark Stengler N.M.D, and Robin Young Balch, N.M.D, eyebright is mentioned again with a little more clarification. It is recommended for both pink eye and irritation due to allergies. In the section on allergies, it is suggested that readers “apply as a solution to irritated eyes by adding 3-5 drops of eyebright tincture to an ounce of contact lens (saline) solution in a disposable cup. Rinse each eye with separate cups and toss the cups after use. Do this once or twice a day to relieve irritated eyes and remove redness.”

Natural Remedies For Pink Eye - Saline Wash

Salt Water Wash

According to Chris A Knobbe, M.D., irrigating the eye’s surface with a sterile salt water (saline) solution several times daily may give additional relief. (16)

Some eye drops contain lubricants and other medications for various conditions, but there are options out there that just contain salt and sterilized water.

Wondering if it’s possible to make your own saline solution? Just like with the teas, using water that has not been boiled or sterilized in some way is not recommended. However, according to Chemistry expert Anne Marie Helmenstine, PhD, it is possible to make – she explains how here.

Comfort Measures ^

Warm Or Cold Compress

“To reduce pain and to remove the discharge of bacterial or viral pinkeye, use a cold or warm compress on the eyes. Make sure to use a different washcloth for each eye to prevent spreading any infection. And use clean washcloths each time. Clean the eye from drainage by wiping from the inside to the outside of the eye area.” (17)

Raw Potatoes

Fresh slices of cold, raw potato are also said to be soothing.

Pink Eye Prevention ^

Recurring pink eye infections may be associated with vitamins A and B (especially B2) deficiencies, so it may be worth exploring supplementation if infections continue to occur. (18) (19)

Cod liver oil is a source of naturally occurring vitamin A. You can find the brand I buy on my shopping page under Superfoods & Supplements.

When To See A Doctor ^

According to the CDC, “Most cases of pink eye are mild and get better without treatment. However, some forms are more severe. Severe cases need to be looked at by a health care provider and may require specific treatment and close follow-up. If you have pink eye, you should see your health care provider if you have—

  • Moderate to severe pain in your eye(s)
  • Blurred vision or increased sensitivity to light
  • Intense redness in the eye(s)
  • A weakened immune system, for example, from HIV or cancer treatment
  • Bacterial pink eye that does not improve after 24 hours of antibiotic use
  • Symptoms that get worse or don’t improve
  • Pre-existing eye conditions that may put you at risk for complications or severe infection”

The CDC also recommends that all babies with pink eye symptoms be seen by a health care provider (exact wording: “immediately”).

Looking for More Remedies? ^

You may find these helpful:

Do you have a favorite natural remedy for pink eye? Please share it below!

This article was medically reviewed by Dr. Sheila Kilbane, MD, a board-certified pediatrician, trained in integrative medicine. As always, this is not personal medical advice and we recommend that you talk with your doctor.

Disclaimer: I am not a doctor and I don’t play one here on this site. These remedies are shared for educational purposes only and are not meant to diagnose or cure any disease. None of these statements have been evaluated by the FDA and are not meant to diagnose, treat or cure any disease. See my full disclaimer here.

Sources for this post:

  1. Pinkeye (Conjunctivitis): Causes, Symptoms, & Treatments
  2. The Mayo Clinic: Pinkeye Basics
  3. All About Vision: Conjunctivitis
  4. Penn State Medical Center
  5. Daily Mail: Man Cures Painful Eye Infection With Jar of Honey
  6. UK National Health Service
  7. Effect of antibacterial honey on the ocular flora in tear deficiency and meibomian gland disease
  8. Traditional Medicine in Oman: Its Role in Ophthalmology
  9. Is Pinkeye Contagious? Manuka Honey
  10. The antibacterial activity of honey and its role in treating diseases
  11. The Healing Power Of Breastmilk
  12. Daily Mail: Is breast milk the new wonder cure?
  13.  
  14. Ray Sahelian, M.D.: Colloidal Silver
  15. The Survival Doctor: Pinkeye Remedies
  16. Christopher Hobbs, LaC., Mary Lake Polan, M.D. 
  17. Chris A Knobb, M.D. 
  18. Web MD
  19. Vitamin A and carotene concentration in serum in persons with chronic conjunctivitis and pterygium
  20. Conjunctivitis and Riboflavin Deficiency

Want more research-backed natural remedies?

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Источник: https://mommypotamus.com/natural-remedies-pink-eye-styes/

5 Common Causes and Remedies for Red Eyes

We’ve all been there. You look in the mirror and red, irritated eyes look back. If you’ve got red eyes, you may be concerned, left wondering what caused them.

The caring providers at Benjamin Optical with offices in Harlem, Brooklyn, Staten Island, and Inwood understand. That’s why we’ve put together this guide on common causes of red eye and what you can do to treat it. 

Red, bloodshot eyes are typically called “red eye.” Eyes turn red and bloodshot when the blood vessels on the surface of the eye dilate. As the blood vessels expand, they make the whites of the eye look pink or red. 

Even though many people suffer from red eye occasionally, chronic red eye isn’t normal and should be evaluated by an eye doctor. However, many cases don’t require medical intervention and can be treated at home. 

Below are five common causes and remedies for red eyes. 

1. Lack of sleep

We all know sleep is important. When you don’t get enough sleep, your eyes show it. Your eyes need to close for long periods to ensure proper fluid circulation. When you keep them open too long, your eyes get red, puffy, and dry. 

To avoid red eye due to lack of sleep, practice good sleep hygiene. You’ll also benefit from many other benefits! 

2. Allergies 

Even if you don’t feel allergies in your nose, an allergic reaction can lead to red “allergy eye&rdquo. Pollen, specific foods, chemicals, and much more can trigger red eye and the itchy, burning sensation that often accompanies allergy eye.  

Over-the-counter allergy medication and eye drops can help alleviate red eye. Your doctor may have additional recommendations. 

3. Dry eye syndrome

When your tears don’t lubricate your eyes correctly, they get dry. Dry eyes become red and irritated. This can happen when the eyes don’t make enough tears or the eyes produce low-quality tears. 

To soothe dry eyes, try using over-the-counter eye drops designed to lubricate them. If your dry eye persists, the experienced optometrists at Benjamin Optical can evaluate your eyes and make recommendations.

4. Computer vision syndrome

We spend more time than ever staring at computer screens. And all of that screen time can lead to eye strain, commonly called “computer vision syndrome.” Staring best home remedy for pink eye other screens, such as TVs, phones, and tablets can cause red eye as well. 

red eye caused by computer vision syndrome results from a lack of moisture to the eyes. When you blink, your tears replenish moisture, but when staring at a computer or looking at a screen, people blink 66% less frequently.

To prevent red eye caused by computer vision syndrome, try blinking more often when using a computer or looking at a screen. Using over-the-counter artificial tears can help, too. 

5. Alcohol

Alcohol is a vasodilator. This means it causes the blood vessels on the surface of the eye to dilate, making the whites of eyes look red. 

Drinking alcohol also dehydrates you, which can make the eyes appear red. Some people react strongly to even small amounts of alcohol.

To avoid red eye caused by alcohol, drink in moderation. Also, be sure to hydrate well. Stay hydrated all day, and try drinking a glass of water between alcoholic beverages.

When to seek professional care

Red eyes can result from causes other than those listed above, including infection, eye injury, smoking or exposure to smoke, having a cold or the flu, contacts lenses, and more. Seek professional help if you experience any of the following symptoms:

  • Your eyes are encrusted with or seeping yellow, brown, or green mucus
  • You have pain or tenderness in or around the eyes
  • You experience extreme or unusual sensitivity to light
  • You or your child has been exposed to conjunctivitis, or “pink eye,” at work or school
  • You’ve tried at-home remedies, and after a week you still have redness and discomfort

Red or bloodshot eyes can be a symptom of more complicated health issues. It’s safest to see an eye doctor for a professional evaluation, even if it turns out to be harmless, rather than regret not seeking treatment. 

If you’re concerned about red eyes, call to schedule a consultation with one of the providers at your nearest Benjamin Optical location today, or book one online.

5 Age-Related Eye Conditions to Look Out For
5 Age-Related Eye Conditions to Look Out For

The key to protecting your vision as you get older is to know the signs of common conditions and get treatment for them when they arise. Here are five to watch for through the years.

Inflamed Eyelids: What Causes Blepharitis?
Inflamed Eyelids: What Causes Blepharitis?

Your eyelids aren’t immune to skin problems. If you’re dealing with redness or swelling on your eyelids or eyelash problems, it could be blepharitis. Learn what causes this condition here.

What Are Cataracts?
What Are Cataracts?

Don’t let cataracts get in the way of your ability to see clearly through the years. Here’s your guide to this common eye condition — and what you can do about it.

How Do Contact Lenses Work?

Contact lenses can make it easy to see while doing the activities you love, but you might be wondering how, exactly, they work. Find out here.

Benjamin Optical, New York, NY

Phone (appointments): 212-574-7807 Phone (general inquiries): 516-239-8932

Address: 575 Burnside Avenue, Inwood, NY11096

Benjamin Optical, Brooklyn, NY

Phone (appointments): 718-395-3414 Phone (general inquiries): 718-568-0455

best home remedy for pink eye Address: 3315 Nostrand Avenue, Suite L1A, Brooklyn, NY11229

Benjamin Optical, Brooklyn, NY

Phone (appointments): 718-709-0886

Conjunctivitis

Inflammation of the eye

"Pinkeye" redirects here. For other uses, see Pinkeye (disambiguation).

Medical condition

Conjunctivitis, also known as pink eye,[4] is inflammation of the outermost layer of the white part of the eye and the inner surface of the eyelid.[5] It makes the eye appear pink or reddish.[1] Pain, burning, scratchiness, or itchiness may occur.[1] The affected eye may have increased tears or be "stuck shut" in the morning.[1] Swelling of the white part of the eye may also occur.[1] Itching is more common in cases due to allergies.[3] Conjunctivitis can affect one or both eyes.[1]

The most common infectious causes are viral followed by bacterial.[3] The viral infection may occur along with other symptoms of a common cold.[1] Both viral and bacterial cases are easily spread between people.[1] Allergies to pollen or animal hair are also a common cause.[3] Diagnosis is often based on signs and symptoms.[1] Occasionally, a sample of the discharge is sent for culture.[1]

Prevention is partly by handwashing.[1] Treatment depends on the underlying cause.[1] In the majority of viral cases, there is no specific treatment.[3] Most cases due to a bacterial infection also resolve without treatment; however, antibiotics can betrayal at house on the hill reddit the illness.[1][3] People who wear contact lenses and those whose infection is caused by gonorrhea or chlamydia should be treated.[3] Allergic cases can be treated with antihistamines or mast cell inhibitor drops.[3]

About 3 to 6 million people get conjunctivitis each year in the United States.[1][3] In adults, viral causes are more common, while in children, bacterial causes are more common.[3] Typically, people get better in one or two weeks.[1][3] If visual loss, significant pain, sensitivity to light, signs of herpes, or if symptoms do not improve after a week, further diagnosis and treatment may be required.[3] Conjunctivitis in a newborn, known as neonatal conjunctivitis, best home remedy for pink eye also require specific treatment.[1]

Signs and symptoms[edit]

Red eye, swelling of the conjunctiva, and watering of the eyes are symptoms common to all forms of conjunctivitis. However, the pupils should be normally reactive, and the visual acuity normal.

Conjunctivitis is identified by irritation and redness of the conjunctiva. Except in obvious pyogenic or toxic/chemical conjunctivitis, a slit lamp (biomicroscope) is needed to confirm the diagnosis. Examination of the best home remedy for pink eye conjunctiva is usually more diagnostic than examination of the scleral conjunctiva.

Viral[edit]

Viral conjunctivitis is often associated with an infection of the upper respiratory tract, a common cold, or a sore throat. Its symptoms include excessive watering and itching. The infection usually begins in one eye but may spread easily to the other eye.

Viral conjunctivitis manifests as a fine, diffuse pinkness of the conjunctiva, which is easily mistaken for a ciliary infection of the iris (iritis), but corroborative signs on microscopy, particularly numerous lymphoid follicles on the tarsal conjunctiva, and sometimes a punctate keratitis are seen.

Allergic[edit]

Allergic conjunctivitis is inflammation of the conjunctiva due to allergy.[6] The specific allergens may differ among patients. Symptoms result from the release of histamine and other active substances by mast cells, and consist of redness (mainly due to vasodilation of the peripheral small blood vessels), swelling of the conjunctiva, itching, and increased production of tears.

Bacterial[edit]

An eye with bacterial conjunctivitis

Bacterial conjunctivitis causes the rapid onset of conjunctival redness, swelling of the eyelid, and a sticky discharge. Typically, symptoms develop first in one eye, but may spread to the other eye within 2–5 days. Conjunctivitis due to common pus-producing bacteria causes marked grittiness or irritation and a stringy, opaque, greyish or yellowish discharge that may cause the lids to stick together, especially after sleep. Severe crusting of the infected eye and the surrounding skin may also occur. The gritty or scratchy feeling is sometimes localized enough that patients may insist that they have a foreign body in the eye.

Common bacteria responsible for nonacute bacterial conjunctivitis are Staphylococcus, Streptococcus,[7] and Haemophilus species. Less commonly, Chlamydia spp. may be the cause.[8]

Typical membranous conjunctivitis

Bacteria such as Chlamydia trachomatis or Moraxella spp. can cause a nonexudative but persistent conjunctivitis without much redness. Bacterial conjunctivitis may cause the production of membranes or pseudomembranes that cover the conjunctiva. Pseudomembranes consist of a combination of inflammatory cells and exudates and adhere loosely to the conjunctiva, while true membranes are more tightly adherent and cannot be easily peeled away. Cases of bacterial conjunctivitis that involve the production of membranes or pseudomembranes are associated with Neisseria gonorrhoeae, β-hemolytic streptococci, and Corynebacterium diphtheriae. C. diphtheriae causes membrane formation in conjunctiva of unimmunized children.[9]

Chemical[edit]

Chemical eye injury may result when an acidic or alkaline substance gets in the eye.[10] Alkali burns are typically worse than acidic burns.[11] Mild burns produce conjunctivitis, while more severe burns may cause the cornea to turn white.[11]Litmus paper may be used to test for chemical causes.[10] When a chemical cause has been confirmed, the eye or eyes should be flushed until the pH is in the range 6–8.[11] Anaesthetic eye drops can be used to decrease the pain.[11]

Irritant or toxic conjunctivitis is primarily marked by redness. If due to a chemical splash, it is often present in only the lower conjunctival sac. With some chemicals, above all with caustic alkalis such as sodium hydroxide, necrosis of the conjunctiva marked by a deceptively white eye due to vascular closure may occur, followed by sloughing off of the dead epithelium. A slit lamp examination is likely to show evidence of anterior uveitis.

Other[edit]

An eye with chlamydial conjunctivitis

Inclusion conjunctivitis of the newborn what is the phone number for xfinity a conjunctivitis that may be caused by the bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis, and may lead to acute, purulent conjunctivitis.[12] However, it is usually self-healing.[12]

Causes[edit]

Infective conjunctivitis is most commonly caused by a virus.[3] Bacterial infections, allergies, other irritants, and dryness are also common causes. Both bacterial and viral infections are contagious, passing from person to person or spread best home remedy for pink eye contaminated objects or water. Contact with contaminated fingers is a common cause of conjunctivitis. Bacteria may also reach the conjunctiva from the edges of the eyelids and the surrounding skin, from the nasopharynx, from infected eye drops or contact lenses, from the genitals or the bloodstream.[13] Infection by human adenovirus accounts for 65% to 90% of cases of viral conjunctivitis.[14]

Viral[edit]

Adenoviruses are the most common cause of viral conjunctivitis (adenoviral keratoconjunctivitis).[15]Herpetic keratoconjunctivitis, caused by herpes simplex viruses, can be serious and requires treatment with aciclovir. Acute hemorrhagic conjunctivitis is a highly contagious disease caused by one of two enteroviruses, enterovirus 70 and coxsackievirus A24. These were first identified in an outbreak in Ghana in 1969, and have spread worldwide since then, causing several epidemics.[16]

Bacterial[edit]

The most common causes of acute bacterial conjunctivitis are Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and Haemophilus influenzae.[15][17] Though very rare, hyperacute cases are usually caused by Neisseria gonorrhoeae or Neisseria meningitidis. Chronic cases of bacterial conjunctivitis are those lasting longer than 3 weeks, and are typically caused by S. aureus, Moraxella lacunata, or Gram-negative enteric flora.

Allergic[edit]

Conjunctivitis may also be caused by allergens such as pollen, perfumes, cosmetics, smoke,[18] dust mites, Balsam of Peru,[19] or eye drops.[20] The most frequent cause of conjunctivitis is allergic conjunctivitis and it affects 15% to 40% of the population.[21] Allergic conjunctivitis accounts for 15% of eye related primary care consultations - most including seasonal exposures in the spring and summer or perpetual conditions.[22]

Other[edit]

Conjunctivitis is part of the triad of reactive arthritis, which is thought to be caused by autoimmune cross-reactivity following certain bacterial infections. Reactive arthritis is highly associated with HLA-B27. Conjunctivitis is associated with the autoimmune disease relapsing polychondritis.[23][24]

Diagnosis[edit]

Cultures are not often taken or needed as most cases resolve either with time or typical antibiotics. If bacterial conjunctivitis is suspected, but no response to topical antibiotics is seen, swabs for bacterial culture should be taken and tested. Viral culture may be appropriate in epidemic case clusters.

A patch test is used to identify the causative allergen in allergic conjunctivitis.[25]

Although conjunctival scrapes for cytology can be useful in detecting chlamydial and fungal infections, allergy, and dysplasia, they are rarely done because of the cost and the general dearth of laboratory staff experienced in handling ocular specimens. Conjunctival incisional biopsy is occasionally done when granulomatous diseases (e.g., sarcoidosis) or dysplasia are suspected.

Classification[edit]

Conjunctivitis may be classified either by cause or by extent of the inflamed area.

Causes[edit]

  • Allergy
  • Bacteria
  • Viruses
  • Chemicals
  • Autoimmune

Neonatal conjunctivitis is often grouped separately from bacterial conjunctivitis because it is caused by different bacteria than the more common cases of bacterial conjunctivitis.

By extent of involvement[edit]

Blepharoconjunctivitis is the dual combination of conjunctivitis with blepharitis (inflammation of the eyelids).

Keratoconjunctivitis is the combination of conjunctivitis and keratitis (corneal inflammation).

Blepharokeratoconjunctivitis is the combination of conjunctivitis with blepharitis and keratitis. It is clinically defined by changes of the lid margin, meibomian gland dysfunction, redness of the eye, conjunctival chemosis and inflammation of the cornea.[26]

Differential diagnosis[edit]

Some more serious conditions can present with a red eye, such as infectious keratitis, angle-closure glaucoma, or iritis. These conditions require the urgent attention of an ophthalmologist. Signs of such conditions include decreased vision, significantly increased sensitivity to light, inability to keep the eye open, a pupil that does not respond to light, or a severe headache with nausea.[27] Fluctuating blurring is common, due to tearing and mucoid discharge. Mild photophobia is common. However, if any of these symptoms is prominent, considering other diseases such as glaucoma, uveitis, keratitis, and even meningitis or carotico-cavernous fistula is best home remedy for pink eye.

A more comprehensive differential diagnosis for the red or painful eye includes:[27]

Prevention[edit]

The most effective prevention is good hygiene, especially avoiding rubbing the eyes with infected hands. Vaccination against adenovirus, Haemophilus influenzae, pneumococcus, and Neisseria meningitidis is also effective.[28]

Povidone-iodine eye solution has been found to prevent neonatal conjunctivitis.[29] It is becoming more commonly used globally because of its low cost.[29]

Management[edit]

Conjunctivitis resolves in 65% of cases without treatment, within 2–5 days. The prescription of antibiotics is not necessary in most cases.[30]

Viral[edit]

Viral conjunctivitis usually resolves on its own and does not require any specific treatment.[3] Antihistamines (e.g., diphenhydramine) or mast cell stabilizers (e.g., cromolyn) may be used to help with the symptoms.[3] Povidone-iodine has been suggested as a treatment, but as of 2008, evidence to support it was poor.[31]

Allergic[edit]

For allergic conjunctivitis, cool water poured over the face with the head inclined downward constricts capillaries, and artificial tears sometimes relieve discomfort in mild cases. In more severe cases, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory medications and antihistamines may be prescribed. Persistent allergic conjunctivitis may also require topical steroid drops.

Bacterial[edit]

Bacterial conjunctivitis usually resolves without treatment.[3] Topical antibiotics may be needed only if no improvement is observed after 3 days.[32] No serious effects were noted either with or without treatment.[33] Because antibiotics do speed healing in bacterial conjunctivitis, their use may be considered.[33] Antibiotics are also recommended for those who wear contact lenses, are immunocompromised, have disease which is thought to be due to chlamydia or gonorrhea, have a fair bit of pain, or have copious discharge.[3] Gonorrheal or chlamydial infections require both oral and topical antibiotics.[3]

The choice of antibiotic varies based on the strain or suspected strain of bacteria causing the infection. Fluoroquinolones, sodium sulfacetamide, or trimethoprim/polymyxin may be used, typically for 7–10 days.[15] Cases of meningococcal conjunctivitis can also be treated with systemic penicillin, as long as the strain is sensitive to penicillin.

When investigated as a treatment, povidone-iodine ophthalmic solution has also been observed to have some effectiveness against bacterial and chlamydial conjunctivitis, with a possible role suggested in locations where topical antibiotics are unavailable or costly.[34]

Chemical[edit]

Conjunctivitis due to chemicals is treated via irrigation with Ringer's lactate or saline solution. Chemical injuries, particularly alkali burns, are medical emergencies, as they can lead to severe scarring and intraocular damage. People with chemically induced conjunctivitis should not touch their eyes to avoid spreading the chemical.

Epidemiology[edit]

Conjunctivitis is the most common eye disease.[35] Rates of disease is related to the underlying cause which varies by the age as well as the time of year. Acute conjunctivitis is most frequently found in infants, school-age children and the elderly.[13] The most common cause of infectious conjunctivitis is viral conjunctivitis.[21]

It is estimated that acute conjunctivitis affects 6 million people annually in the United States.[3]

Some seasonal trends have been observed for the occurrence of different forms of conjunctivitis. The occurrence of bacterial conjunctivitis peaks from December to April, viral conjunctivitis peaks in the summer months and allergic conjunctivitis is more prevalent throughout the spring and summer.[13]

History[edit]

An adenovirus was first isolated by Rowe et al. in 1953. Two years later, Jawetz et al. published on epidemic keratoconjunctivitis.[36]: 437  "Madras eye" is a colloquial term that has been used in India for the disease. "Joy Bangla"(জয় বাংলা) is a colloquial term that has been used in Bangladesh for the disease.[citation needed]

Society and culture[edit]

Conjunctivitis imposes economic and social burdens. The cost of treating bacterial conjunctivitis alone was estimated to be $377 million to $857 million per year.[3] Approximately 1% of all primary care office visits in the United States chase bank routing number for chicago related to conjunctivitis. Approximately 70% of all people with acute conjunctivitis present to primary care and urgent care.[3]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ abcdefghijklmnopqrs"Facts About Pink Eye". National Eye Institute. November 2015. Archived from the original on 9 March 2016. Retrieved 8 March 2016.
  2. ^Long SS, Prober CG, Fischer M (2017). Principles and Practice of Pediatric Infectious Diseases E-Book. Elsevier Health Sciences. p. 502. ISBN .
  3. ^ abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwAzari AA, Barney NP (October 2013). "Conjunctivitis: a systematic review of diagnosis and treatment". JAMA. 310 (16): 1721–9. doi:10.1001/jama.2013.280318. PMC 4049531. PMID 24150468.
  4. ^"What is Viral Conjunctivitis a.k.a. Sore Eyes? | National Institutes of Health".
  5. ^Richards A, Guzman-Cottrill JA (May 2010). "Conjunctivitis". Pediatrics in Review. 31 (5): 196–208. doi:10.1542/pir.31-5-196. PMID 20435711.
  6. ^Bielory L, Friedlaender MH (February 2008). "Allergic conjunctivitis". Immunology and Allergy Clinics of North America. 28 (1): 43–58, vi. doi:10.1016/j.iac.2007.12.005. PMID 18282545.
  7. ^"Pink Eye (Conjunctivitis)". MedicineNet. Archived from the original on 22 June 2013.
  8. ^"Acute Bacterial Conjunctivitis – Eye Disorders". Merck Manuals Professional Edition. Archived from the original on 28 December 2016. Retrieved 31 December 2016.
  9. ^Hamborsky J, Kroger A, Wolfe C, eds. (2015). Epidemiology and Prevention of Vaccine-Preventable Diseases. U.S. Dept. of Health & Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. p. 112. ISBN .
  10. ^ abZentani A, Burslem J (December 2009). "Towards evidence based emergency medicine: best BETs from the Manchester Royal Infirmary. BET 4: use of litmus paper in chemical eye injury". Emergency Medicine Journal. 26 (12): 887. doi:10.1136/emj.2009.086124. PMID 19934140. S2CID 38124735.
  11. ^ abcdHodge C, Lawless M (July 2008). "Ocular emergencies". Australian Family Physician. 37 (7): 506–9. PMID 18592066.
  12. ^ abFisher B, Harvey RP, Champe PC (2007). Lippincott's Illustrated Reviews: Microbiology (Lippincott's Illustrated Reviews Series). Hagerstown MD: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. ISBN .
  13. ^ abcHøvding G (February 2008). "Acute bacterial conjunctivitis". Acta Ophthalmologica. 86 (1): 5–17. doi:10.1111/j.1600-0420.2007.01006.x. PMID 17970823. S2CID 20629824.
  14. ^Singh MP, Ram J, Kumar A, Rungta T, Gupta A, Khurana J, Ratho RK (2018). "Molecular epidemiology of circulating human adenovirus types in acute conjunctivitis cases in Chandigarh, North India". Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology. 36 (1): 113–115. doi:10.4103/ijmm.ijmm_17_258. PMID 29735838.
  15. ^ abcYanoff M, Duker JS (2008). Ophthalmology (3rd ed.). Edinburgh: Mosby. pp. 227–236. ISBN .
  16. ^Lévêque N, Huguet P, Norder H, Chomel JJ (April 2010). "[Enteroviruses responsible for acute hemorrhagic conjunctivitis]". Médecine et Maladies Infectieuses (in French). 40 (4): 212–8. doi:10.1016/j.medmal.2009.09.006. PMID 19836177.
  17. ^CDC (2 October 2017). "Protect Yourself From Pink Eye". Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Retrieved 7 December 2018.
  18. ^"Allergic Conjunctivitis". familydoctor.org. Archived from the original on 6 September 2015. Retrieved 18 September 2015.[unreliable medical source?]
  19. ^Brooks P (25 October 2012). The Daily Telegraph: Complete Guide to Allergies. ISBN . Retrieved 15 April 2014.
  20. ^"What Is Allergic Conjunctivitis? What Causes Allergic Conjunctivitis?". medicalnewstoday.com. Archived from the original on 16 March 2010. Retrieved 6 April 2010.
  21. ^ abMourad MS, Rihan RA (April 2018). "Prevalence of Different Eye Diseases excluding Refractive Errors Presented at the Outpatient Clinic in Beheira Eye Hospital". The Egyptian Journal of Hospital Medicine. 71 (2): 2484–2489. doi:10.12816/0045645. S2CID 80882721.
  22. ^Perkin MR, Bader T, Rudnicka AR, Strachan DP, Owen CG (24 November 2015). "Inter-Relationship between Rhinitis and Conjunctivitis in Allergic Rhinoconjunctivitis and Associated Risk Factors in Rural UK Children". PLOS ONE. 10 (11): e0143651. Bibcode:2015PLoSO.1043651P. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0143651. PMC 4658044. PMID 26600465.
  23. ^Puéchal X, Terrier B, Mouthon L, Costedoat-Chalumeau N, Guillevin L, Le Jeunne C (March 2014). "Relapsing polychondritis". Joint, Bone, Spine. 81 (2): 118–24. doi:10.1016/j.jbspin.2014.01.001. PMID 24556284.
  24. ^Cantarini L, Vitale A, Brizi MG, Caso F, Frediani B, Punzi L, et al. (2014). "Diagnosis and classification of food pantry bronx near me polychondritis". Journal of Autoimmunity. 48–49: 53–9. doi:10.1016/j.jaut.2014.01.026. PMID 24461536.
  25. ^Mannis MJ, Macsai MS, Huntley AC (1996). Eye and skin disease. Lippincott-Raven. ISBN . Archived from the original on 5 July 2014. Retrieved 23 April 2014.
  26. ^O'Gallagher M, Banteka M, Bunce C, Larkin F, Tuft S, Dahlmann-Noor A (May 2016). "Systemic treatment for blepharokeratoconjunctivitis in children". The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (5): CD011750. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD011750.pub2. PMID 27236587.
  27. ^ abLongo DL (2012). "Disorders of the Eye(Horton JC)". Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine. McGra-Hill.
  28. ^"Protect Yourself From Pink Eye". Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2 October 2017. Retrieved 18 October 2017.
  29. ^ abIsenberg SJ (2003). "The ocular application of povidone-iodine". Community Eye Health. 16 (46): 30–1. PMC 1705857. PMID 17491857.
  30. ^Rose P (August 2007). "Management strategies for acute infective conjunctivitis in primary care: a systematic review". Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy. 8 (12): 1903–21. doi:10.1517/14656566.8.12.1903. PMID 17696792. S2CID 45899988.
  31. ^Bartlett JD, Jaanus SD (2008). Clinical Ocular Pharmacology. Elsevier Health Sciences. pp. 454–. ISBN . Archived from the original on 3 December 2016.
  32. ^Visscher KL, Hutnik CM, Thomas M (November 2009). "Evidence-based treatment of acute infective conjunctivitis: Breaking the cycle of antibiotic prescribing". Canadian Family Physician. 55 (11): 1071–5. PMC 2776793. PMID 19910590.
  33. ^ abSheikh A, Hurwitz B, van Schayck CP, McLean S, Nurmatov U (September 2012). "Antibiotics versus placebo for acute bacterial conjunctivitis". The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 9 (9): CD001211. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD001211.pub3. PMID 22972049.
  34. ^Isenberg SJ, Apt L, Valenton M, Del Signore M, Cubillan L, Labrador MA, et al. (November 2002). "A controlled trial of povidone-iodine to treat infectious conjunctivitis in children". American Journal of Ophthalmology. 134 (5): 681–8. doi:10.1016/S0002-9394(02)01701-4. PMID 12429243.
  35. ^Smeltzer SC (2010). Brunner & Suddarth's textbook of medical-surgical nursing (12th ed.). Philadelphia: Wolters Kluwer Health/Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. p. 1787. ISBN . Archived from the original on 15 August 2016.
  36. ^Jhanji V, Chan TC, Li EY, Agarwal K, Vajpayee RB (September–October 2015). "Adenoviral keratoconjunctivitis". Survey of Ophthalmology. 60 (5): 435–43. doi:10.1016/j.survophthal.2015.04.001. PMID 26077630.

External links[edit]

Источник: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Conjunctivitis
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