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Google Chrome

Web browser developed by Google

This article is about the web browser. For the operating system, see Chrome OS. For other uses, see Chrome (disambiguation).

Google Chrome for Android Icon 2016.svg
Google Chrome on Windows 10 screenshot.png

Google Chrome running on Windows 10

Initial release
Windows XPbeta / September 2, 2008; 13 years ago (2008-09-02)
Windows XP1.0 / December 11, 2008; 12 years ago (2008-12-11)
macOS, Linuxpreview / June 4, 2009; 12 years ago (2009-06-04)
macOS, Linuxbeta / December 8, 2009; 11 years ago (2009-12-08)
Multi­platform5.0 / May 25, 2010; 11 years ago (2010-05-25)
Windows, macOS, Linux96.0.4664.45[5] Edit this on Wikidata / 11 November 2021; 7 days ago (11 November 2021)
Written inC, C++, Assembly, HTML, Java (Android app only), JavaScript, Python[6][7][8]
EnginesBlink (WebKit on iOS), V8 JavaScript engine
Operating system
PlatformIA-32, x86-64, ARMv7, ARMv8-A
Included with
Available in47 languages[11]
TypeWeb browser, mobile browser
LicenseProprietaryfreeware, based on open source components.[12][note 1]

Google Chrome is a cross-platformweb browser developed by Google. It was first released in 2008 for Microsoft Windows, built with free software components from Apple WebKit and Mozilla Firefox.[13] It was later ported to Linux, macOS, iOS, and Android, where it is the default browser.[14] The browser is also the main component of Chrome OS, where it serves as the platform for web applications.

Most of Chrome's source code comes from Google's free and open-source software project Chromium, but Chrome is licensed as proprietary freeware.[12]WebKit was the original rendering engine, but Google eventually forked it to create the Blink engine;[15] all Chrome variants except iOS now use Blink.[16]

As of October 2021[update], StatCounter estimates that Chrome has a 68% worldwide browser market share (after peaking at 72.38% in November 2018) on personal computers (PC),[17] is most used on tablets (having surpassed Safari), and is also dominant on smartphones,[18][19] and at 65% across all platforms combined.[20] Because of this success, Google has expanded the "Chrome" brand name to other products: Chrome OS, Chromecast, Chromebook, Chromebit, Chromebox, and Chromebase.


See also: History of Google

Google CEO Eric Schmidt opposed the development of an independent web browser for six years. He stated that "at the time, Google was a small company", and he did not want to go through "bruising browser wars". After co-founders Sergey Brin and Larry Page hired several Mozilla Firefox developers and built a demonstration of Chrome, Schmidt said that "It was so good that it essentially forced me to change my mind."[21]

In September 2004, rumors of Google building a web browser first appeared. Online journals and U.S. newspapers stated at the time that Google was hiring former Microsoft web developers among others. It also came shortly after the release of Mozilla Firefox 1.0, which was surging in popularity and taking market share from Internet Explorer, which had noted security problems.[22]

Development of the browser began in 2006[23] spearheaded by Sundar Pichai.[24]


The release announcement was originally scheduled for September 3, 2008, and a comic by Scott McCloud was to be sent to journalists and bloggers explaining the features within the new browser.[25] Copies intended for Europe were shipped early and German blogger Philipp Lenssen of Google Blogoscoped made a scanned copy of the 38-page comic available on his website after receiving it on September 1, 2008.[26][27] Google subsequently made the comic available on Google Books,[28] and mentioned it on their official blog along with an explanation for the early release.[29] The product was named "Chrome" as an initial development project code name, because it is associated with fast cars and speed. Google kept the development project name as the final release name, as a "cheeky" or ironic moniker, as one of the main aims was to minimize the user interface chrome.[30][31]

Public release

An early version of Chromium for Linux, explaining the difference between Chrome and Chromium

The browser was first publicly released, officially as a beta version,[32] on September 2, 2008 for Windows XP and newer, and with support for 43 languages, and later as a "stable" public release on December 11, 2008. On that same day, a CNET news item drew attention to a passage in the Terms of Service statement for the initial beta release, which seemed to grant to Google a license to all content transferred via the Chrome browser.[33] This passage was inherited from the general Google terms of service.[34] Google responded to this criticism immediately by stating that the language used was borrowed from other products, and removed this passage from the Terms of Service.[12]

Chrome quickly gained about 1% usage share.[29][35][36] After the initial surge, usage share dropped until it hit a low of 0.69% in October 2008. It then started rising again and by December 2008, Chrome again passed the 1% threshold.[37] In early January 2009, CNET reported that Google planned to release versions of Chrome for OS X and Linux in the first half of the year.[38] The first official Chrome OS X and Linux developer previews were announced on June 4, 2009,[39] with a blog post saying they were missing many features and were intended for early feedback rather than general use.[40] In December 2009, Google released beta versions of Chrome for OS X and Linux.[41][42] Google Chrome 5.0, announced on May 25, 2010, was the first stable release to support all three platforms.[43]

Chrome was one of the twelve browsers offered on to European Economic Area users of Microsoft Windows in 2010.[44]


Chrome was assembled from 25 different code libraries from Google and third parties such as Mozilla's Netscape Portable Runtime, Network Security Services, NPAPI (dropped as of version 45),[45]Skia Graphics Engine, SQLite, and a number of other open-source projects.[46] The V8JavaScriptvirtual machine was considered a sufficiently important project to be split off (as was Adobe/Mozilla's Tamarin) and handled by a separate team in Denmark coordinated by Lars Bak in Aarhus. According to Google, existing implementations were designed "for small programs, where the performance and interactivity of the system weren't that important", but web applications such as Gmail "are using the web browser to the fullest when it comes to DOM manipulations and JavaScript", and therefore would significantly benefit from a JavaScript engine that could work faster.

Chrome initially used the WebKit rendering engine to display web pages. In 2013, they forked the WebCore component to create their own layout engine Blink. Based on WebKit, Blink only uses WebKit's "WebCore" components, while substituting other components, such as its own multi-process architecture, in place of WebKit's native implementation.[15] Chrome is internally tested with unit testing, automated testing of scripted user actions, fuzz testing, as well as WebKit's layout tests (99% of which Chrome is claimed to have passed), and against commonly accessed websites inside the Google index within 20–30 minutes.[28] Google created Gears for Chrome, which added features for web developers typically relating to the building of web applications, including offline support.[28] Google phased out Gears as the same functionality became available in the HTML5 standards.[47]

On January 11, 2011, the Chrome product manager, Mike Jazayeri, announced that Chrome would remove H.264 video codec support for its HTML5 player, citing the desire to bring Google Chrome more in line with the currently available open codecs available in the Chromium project, which Chrome is based on.[48] Despite this, on November 6, 2012, Google released a version of Chrome on Windows which added hardware-accelerated H.264 video decoding.[49] In October 2013, Cisco announced that it was open-sourcing its H.264 codecs and would cover all fees required.[50]

On February 7, 2012, Google launched Google Chrome Beta for Android 4.0 devices.[51] On many new devices with Android 4.1 and later preinstalled, Chrome is the default browser.[52] In May 2017, Google announced a version of Chrome for augmented reality and virtual reality devices.[53]

Version history

Main article: Google Chrome version history


Google Chrome features a minimalistic user interface, with its user-interface principles later being implemented into other browsers. For example, the merging of the address bar and search bar into the omnibox or omnibar[54][55] Chrome also has a reputation for strong browser performance.[56][57]

Bookmarks and settings synchronization

Chrome allows users to synchronize their bookmarks, history, and settings across all devices with the browser installed by sending and receiving data through a chosen Google Account, which in turn updates all signed-in instances of Chrome. This can be authenticated either through Google credentials, or a sync passphrase.

Web standards support

The results of the Acid3test on Google Chrome 4.0

The first release of Google Chrome passed both the Acid1 and Acid2 tests. Beginning with version 4.0, Chrome has passed all aspects of the Acid3 test.[58]

As of May 2011[update], Chrome has very good support for JavaScript/ECMAScript according to Ecma International's ECMAScript standards conformance Test 262[59] (version ES5.1 May 18, 2012). This test reports as the final score the number of tests a browser failed; hence lower scores are better. In this test, Chrome version 37 scored 10 failed/11,578 passed. For comparison, Firefox 19 scored 193 failed/11,752 passed and Internet Explorer 9 has a score of 600+ failed, while Internet Explorer 10 has a score of 7 failed.

In 2011, on the official CSS 2.1 test suite by standardization organization W3C, WebKit, the Chrome rendering engine, passes 89.75% (89.38% out of 99.59% covered) CSS 2.1 tests.[60]

On the HTML5 web standards test, Chrome 41 scores 518 out of 555 points, placing it ahead of the five most popular desktop browsers.[61][62] Chrome 41 on Android scores 510 out of 555 points.[63][64][65] Chrome 44 scores 526, only 29 points less than the maximum score.[66]


See also: Browser security

Chrome periodically retrieves updates of two blacklists (one for phishing and one for malware), and warns users when they attempt to visit a site flagged as potentially harmful. This service is also made available for use by others via a free public API called "Google Safe Browsing API".[28]

Chrome uses a process-allocation model to sandboxtabs.[67] Using the principle of least privilege, each tab process cannot interact with critical memory functions (e.g. OS memory, user files) or other tab processes – similar to Microsoft's "Protected Mode" used by Internet Explorer 9 or greater. The Sandbox Team is said to have "taken this existing process boundary and made it into a jail". This enforces a computer security model whereby there are two levels of multilevel security (user and sandbox) and the sandbox can only respond to communication requests initiated by the user.[68] On Linux sandboxing uses the seccomp mode.[69][70]

In January 2015, TorrentFreak reported that using Chrome when connected to the internet using a VPN can be a serious security issue due to the browser's support for WebRTC.[71]

On September 9, 2016, it was reported that starting with Chrome 56, users will be warned when they visit insecure HTTP websites to encourage more sites to make the transition to HTTPS.[72]

On December 4, 2018, Google announced its Chrome 71 release with new security features, including a built-in ad featuring system. In addition, Google also announced its plan to crack down on websites that make people involuntarily subscribe to mobile subscription plans.[73]

On September 2, 2020, with the release of Chrome 85, Google extended support for Secure DNS in Chrome for Android. DNS-over-HTTPS (DoH), was designed to improve safety and privacy while browsing the web. Under the update, Chrome automatically switches to DNS-over-HTTPS (DoH), if the current DNS provider supports the feature.[74]

Password management


Since 2008, Chrome has been faulted for not including a master password to prevent casual access to a user's passwords. Chrome developers have indicated that a master password does not provide real security against determined hackers and have refused to implement one. Bugs filed on this issue have been marked "WontFix".[75][76] As of February 2014[update], Google Chrome asks the user to enter the Windows account password before showing saved passwords.[77]


On Linux, Google Chrome/Chromium can store passwords in three ways:

Google Chrome/Chromium chooses which store to use automatically, based on the desktop environment in use.[78]

Passwords stored in GNOME Keyring or KWallet are encrypted on disk, and access to them is controlled by dedicated daemon software. Passwords stored in plain text are not encrypted. Because of this, when either GNOME Keyring or KWallet is in use, any unencrypted passwords that have been stored previously are automatically moved into the encrypted store.

Support for using GNOME Keyring and KWallet was added in version 6, but using these (when available) was not made the default mode until version 12.

Although Google Chrome/Chromium chooses which store to use automatically, the store to use can also be specified with a command-line argument:

  • --password-store=gnome (to use GNOME Keyring)
  • --password-store=kwallet (to use KWallet)
  • --password-store=basic (to use the plain text store)

As of version 45, the Google Chrome password manager is no longer integrated with Keychain, since the interoperability goal is no longer possible.[79]

Security vulnerabilities

No security vulnerabilities in Chrome were exploited in the three years of Pwn2Own from 2009 to 2011.[80]

At Pwn2Own 2012, Chrome was defeated by a French team who used zero day exploits in the version of Flash shipped with Chrome to take complete control of a fully patched 64-bit Windows 7 PC using a booby-trapped website that overcame Chrome's sandboxing.[81]

Chrome was compromised twice at the 2012 CanSecWest Pwnium.[81][82][83] Google's official response to the exploits was delivered by Jason Kersey, who congratulated the researchers, noting "We also believe that both submissions are works of art and deserve wider sharing and recognition."[84] Fixes for these vulnerabilities were deployed within 10 hours of the submission.[85][86]

A significant number of security vulnerabilities in Chrome occur in the Adobe Flash Player. For example, the 2016 Pwn2Own successful attack on Chrome relied on four security vulnerabilities. Two of the vulnerabilities were in Flash, one was in Chrome, and one was in the Windows kernel.[87] In 2016, Google announced that it was planning to phase out Flash Player in Chrome, starting in version 53. The first phase of the plan is to disable Flash for ads and "background analytics", with the ultimate goal of disabling it completely by the end of the year, except on specific sites that Google has deemed to be broken without it. Flash would then be re-enabled with the exclusion of ads and background analytics on a site-by-site basis.[88]

Leaked documents published by WikiLeaks, codenamed Vault 7 and dated from 2013 to 2016, detail the capabilities of the CIA, such as the ability to compromise web browsers (including Google Chrome).[89][90]

Malware blocking and ad blocking

Google introduced download scanning protection in Chrome 17.[91] In February 2018, Google introduced an ad blocking feature based on recommendations from the Interactive Advertising Bureau. Sites that employ invasive ads are given a 30-day warning, after which their ads will be blocked.[92]Consumer Reports recommended users install dedicated ad-blocking tools instead, which offer increased security against malware and tracking.[93]


  • Chrome supported, up to version 45, plug-ins with the Netscape Plugin Application Programming Interface (NPAPI),[94] so that plug-ins (for example Adobe Flash Player) run as unrestricted separate processes outside the browser and cannot be sandboxed as tabs are. ActiveX is not supported.[94] Since 2010, Adobe Flash has been integral to Chrome and does not need be installed separately. Flash is kept up to date as part of Chrome's own updates.[95]Java applet support was available in Chrome with Java 6 update 12 and above.[96] Support for Java under OS X was provided by a Java Update released on May 18, 2010.[97]
  • On August 12, 2009, Google introduced a replacement for NPAPI that is more portable and more secure[98] called Pepper Plugin API (PPAPI).[99] The default bundled PPAPI Flash Player (or Pepper-based Flash Player) was available on Chrome OS first, then replaced the NPAPI Flash Player on Linux from Chrome version 20, on Windows from version 21 (which also reduced Flash crashes by 20%),[100] and eventually came to OS X at version 23.[101]
  • On September 23, 2013, Google announced that it would be deprecating and then removing NPAPI support. NPAPI support was removed from Linux in Chrome release 35.[102] NPAPI plugins like Java can no longer work in Chrome (but there are workarounds for Flash by using PPAPI Flash Player on Linux including for Chromium).[103]
  • On April 14, 2015, Google released Chrome v42, disabling the NPAPI by default. This makes plugins that do not have a PPAPI plugin counterpart incompatible with Chrome, such as Java, Silverlight and Unity. However, NPAPI support could be enabled through the chrome://flags[permanent dead link] menu, until the release of version 45 on September 1, 2015, that removed NPAPI support entirely.[104]


Incognito mode

"Incognito mode" redirects here. For other uses, see Incognito.

Google Chrome Incognito mode message

The private browsing feature called Incognito mode prevents the browser from locally storing any history information, cookies, site data, or form inputs.[105] Downloaded files and bookmarks will be stored. In addition, user activity is not hidden from visited websites or the Internet service provider. It may be used in web development to preview pages as they appear to first-time visitors.

Incognito mode is similar to the private browsing feature in other web browsers. It does not prevent saving in all windows: "You can switch between an incognito window and any regular windows you have open. You'll only be in incognito mode when you're using the incognito window".[106]

The iOS version of Chrome also supports the optional ability to lock incognito tabs with Face ID, Touch ID or the device's passcode.[107]

Listening capabilities

In June 2015, the Debian developer community discovered that Chromium 43 and Chrome 43 were programmed to download the Hotword Shared Module, which could enable the OK Google voice recognition extension, although by default it was "off". This raised privacy concerns in the media.[108][109] The module was removed in Chrome 45, which was released on September 1, 2015, and was only present in Chrome 43 and 44.[110][111]

User tracking concerns

Chrome sends details about its users and their activities to Google through both optional and non-optional user tracking mechanisms.[112][113]

Some of the tracking mechanisms can be optionally enabled and disabled through the installation interface[114] and through the browser's options dialog.[115] Unofficial builds, such as SRWare Iron, seek to remove these features from the browser altogether.[116] The RLZ feature is not included in the Chromium browser either.[117]

In March 2010, Google devised a new method to collect installation statistics: the unique ID token included with Chrome is now used for only the first connection that Google Update makes to its server.[118]

The optional suggestion service included in Google Chrome has been criticized because it provides the information typed into the Omnibox to the search provider before the user even hits return. This allows the search engine to provide URL suggestions, but also provides them with web use information tied to an IP address.[119]

The optional feature to use a web service to help resolve spelling errors has privacy implications.[120]

A 2019 review by Washington Post technology columnist Geoffrey A. Fowler found that in a typical week of browsing, Chrome allowed thousands of more cookies to be stored than Mozilla Firefox. Fowler pointed out that because of its advertising businesses, despite the privacy controls it offers users, Google is a major producer of third-party cookies and has a financial interest in collecting user data; he recommended switching to Firefox, Apple Safari, or Chromium-based Brave.[121]

In January 2021, Alphabet stated it was making progress on developing privacy-friendly alternatives which would replace third-party cookies currently being used by advertisers and companies to track browsing habits. Google has promised to phase out the use of cookies in their web-browser in 2022, implementing their FLoC technology instead. The announcement came after scrutiny from both the United States and the United Kingdom: the U.K.'s Competition and Markets Authority opened a formal probe into Google's claim to end cookie support in January of the same year and the antitrust lawsuit against the company in December 2020 by ten U.S. states.[122][123][124][125]

Chrome's future switch to FLoC has drawn criticism from DuckDuckGo, Brave and the Electronic Frontier Foundation.[126][127][128]

Method[116]Information sent When Optional? Opt-in?
InstallationRandomly generated token included in an installer; used to measure the success rate of Google Chrome once at installation[129]

On installation

No N/A
RLZ identifier[130]Encoded string, according to Google, contains non-identifying information on where Chrome was downloaded from and its installation week; it is used to measure promotional campaigns;[129] Google provides source code to decode this string[117]

Can be disabled in Chrome OS.[129] For Chrome browsers running in all other operating systems:[129]

  • Desktop versions of Chrome can avoid it by downloading the browser directly from Google.
  • Mobile versions of Chrome always send the RLZ identifier on first launch.
  • On Google search query
  • On first launch and first use of address bar[129]
[note 2][129]
clientID[115]Unique identifier along with user preferences, logs of use metrics and crashes Un­known Yes[131]Yes
Omnibox predictions[115]Text typed into the address bar is sent to the user's search engine when not in incognito mode. When in incognito mode, the suggestions are created on-device instead.[129]While typing Yes No
Google UpdateInformation about how often Chrome is used, details about the OS and Chrome version Periodically Partial
[note 3][132]

No longer in this table: Chrome previously was able to suggest similar pages when a page couldn't be found. For this, in some cases Google servers were contacted.[133] The feature has been removed.

Do Not Track

In February 2012, Google announced that Chrome would implement the Do Not Track (DNT) standard to inform websites the user's desire not to be tracked. The protocol was implemented in version 23. In line with the W3's draft standard for DNT,[134] it is turned off by default in Chrome.[135]


The JavaScriptvirtual machine used by Chrome, the V8 JavaScript engine, has features such as dynamic code generation, hidden class transitions, and precise garbage collection.[28]

In 2008, several websites performed benchmark tests using the SunSpider JavaScript Benchmark tool as well as Google's own set of computationally intense benchmarks, which include ray tracing and constraint solving.[136] They unanimously reported that Chrome performed much faster than all competitors against which it had been tested, including Safari (for Windows), Firefox 3.0, Internet Explorer 7, Opera, and Internet Explorer 8.[137][138][139][56][140][141] However, on October 11, 2010, independent tests of JavaScript performance, Chrome has been scoring just behind Opera'sPresto engine since it was updated in version 10.5.[142]

On September 3, 2008, Mozilla responded by stating that their own TraceMonkey JavaScript engine (then in beta), was faster than Chrome's V8 engine in some tests.[143][144][145]John Resig, Mozilla's JavaScript evangelist, further commented on the performance of different browsers on Google's own suite, commenting on Chrome's "decimating" of the other browsers, but he questioned whether Google's suite was representative of real programs. He stated that Firefox 3.0 performed poorly on recursion-intensive benchmarks, such as those of Google, because the Mozilla team had not implemented recursion-tracing yet.[146]

Two weeks after Chrome's launch in 2008, the WebKit team announced a new JavaScript engine, SquirrelFish Extreme,[147] citing a 36% speed improvement over Chrome's V8 engine.[148][149][150]

Like most major web browsers, Chrome uses DNS prefetching to speed up website lookups,[151] as do other browsers like Firefox,[152] Safari,[153] Internet Explorer (called DNS Pre-resolution),[154] and in Opera as a UserScript (not built-in).[155]

Chrome formerly used their now-deprecated SPDY protocol instead of only HTTP[156][157] when communicating with servers that support it, such as Google services, Facebook, Twitter. SPDY support was removed in Chrome version 51. This was due to SPDY being replaced by HTTP/2, a standard that was based upon it.

In November 2019, Google said it was working on several "speed badging" systems that let visitors know why a page is taking time to show up. The variations include simple text warnings and more subtle signs that indicate a site is slow. No date has been given for when the badging system will be included with the Chrome browser.[158]


Screenshot of a Chrome browser crash

A multi-process architecture is implemented in Chrome where, by default, a separate process is allocated to each site instance and plugin.[159] This procedure is termed process isolation,[160] and raises security and stability by preventing tasks from interfering with each other. An attacker successfully gaining access to one application gains access to no others,[161] and failure in one instance results in a Sad Tabscreen of death, similar to the well-known Sad Mac, but only one tab crashes instead of the whole application. This strategy exacts a fixed per-process cost up front, but results in less memory bloat over time as fragmentation is confined to each instance and no longer needs further memory allocations.[28] This architecture was later adopted in Safari[162] and Firefox.[163]

Chrome includes a process management utility called Task Manager which lets users see what sites and plugins are using the most memory, downloading the most bytes and overusing the CPU and provides the ability to terminate them.[28] Chrome Version 23 ensures its users an improved battery life for the systems supporting Chrome's GPU accelerated video decoding.[164][49]

Saving pages

Further information: MHTML § Google Chrome

The desktop edition of Chrome is able to save pages as HTML with assets in a "_files" subfolder, or as unprocessed HTML-only document. It also offers an option to save in the MHTML format.[165]

User interface

2D motif from March 2011 until October 2015

Material Design motif used from September 2014 onward for mobile versions and October 2015 onward for desktop versions

By default, the main user interface includes back, forward, refresh/cancel and menu buttons. A home button is not shown by default, but can be added through the Settings page to take the user to the new tab page or a custom home page.[166]

Tabs are the main component of Chrome's user interface and have been moved to the top of the window rather than below the controls. This subtle change contrasts with many existing tabbed browsers which are based on windows and contain tabs. Tabs, with their state, can be transferred seamlessly between window containers by dragging. Each tab has its own set of controls, including the Omnibox.[28]

The Omnibox is a URL box that combines the functions of both the address bar and search box. If a user enters the URL of a site previously searched from, Chrome allows pressing Tab to search the site again directly from the Omnibox. When a user starts typing in the Omnibox, Chrome provides suggestions for previously visited sites (based on the URL or in-page text), popular websites (not necessarily visited before – powered by Google Instant), and popular searches. Although Instant can be turned off, suggestions based on previously visited sites cannot be turned off. Chrome will also autocomplete the URLs of sites visited often.[28] If a user types keywords into the Omnibox that don't match any previously visited websites and presses enter, Chrome will conduct the search using the default search engine.

One of Chrome's differentiating features is the New Tab Page, which can replace the browser home page and is displayed when a new tab is created. Originally, this showed thumbnails of the nine most visited websites, along with frequent searches, recent bookmarks, and recently closed tabs; similar to Internet Explorer and Firefox with Google Toolbar, or Opera'sSpeed Dial.[28] In Google Chrome 2.0, the New Tab Page was updated to allow users to hide thumbnails they did not want to appear.[167]

Starting in version 3.0, the New Tab Page was revamped to display thumbnails of the eight most visited websites. The thumbnails could be rearranged, pinned, and removed. Alternatively, a list of text links could be displayed instead of thumbnails. It also features a "Recently closed" bar that shows recently closed tabs and a "tips" section that displays hints and tricks for using the browser.[168]

Chrome includes a bookmarks submenu that lists the user's bookmarks, provides easy access to Chrome's Bookmark Manager, and allows the user to toggle a bookmarks bar on or off.

For web developers, Chrome features an element inspector (Inspect Element), similar to the Firebug browser extension, which allows users to look into the DOM and see what makes up the webpage.[151]

Chrome has special URLs that load application-specific pages instead of websites or files on disk. Chrome also has a built-in ability to enable experimental features. Originally called , the address was changed to to make it less obvious to casual users.[169][170]

In March 2011, Google introduced a new simplified logo to replace the previous 3D logo that had been used since the project's inception. Google designer Steve Rura explained the company reasoning for the change: "Since Chrome is all about making your web experience as easy and clutter-free as possible, we refreshed the Chrome icon to better represent these sentiments. A simpler icon embodies the Chrome spirit – to make the web quicker, lighter, and easier for all."[171]

In September 2013, Google started making Chrome apps "For your desktop". This meant offline access, desktop shortcuts, and less dependence on Chrome—apps launch in a window separate from Chrome, and look more like native applications.[172]

On January 2, 2019, Google introduced Native Dark Theme for Chrome on Windows 10.[173]

Desktop shortcuts and apps

Chrome allows users to make local desktop shortcuts that open web applications in the browser. The browser, when opened in this way, contains none of the regular interface except for the title bar, so as not to "interrupt anything the user is trying to do". This allows web applications to run alongside local software (similar to Mozilla Prism and Fluid).[28]

This feature, according to Google, would be enhanced with the Chrome Web Store, a one-stop web-based web applications directory which opened in December 2010.[174][175]

Chrome Web Store

Main article: Chrome Web Store

Announced on December 7, 2010, the Chrome Web Store allows users to install web applications as extensions to the browser, although most of these extensions function simply as links to popular web pages and/or games, some of the apps like Springpad do provide extra features like offline access. The themes and extensions have also been tightly integrated into the new store, allowing users to search the entire catalog of Chrome extras.[176]

The Chrome Web Store was opened on February 11, 2011, with the release of Google Chrome 9.0.[177]


Browser extensions are able to modify Google Chrome. They are supported by the browser's desktop edition.[178] These extensions are written using web technologies like HTML, JavaScript, and CSS.[179] They are distributed through Chrome Web Store,[180] initially known as the Google Chrome Extensions Gallery.[178] All users with a Google Account are able to add extensions after developing them.[181] Many Chrome extensions, once installed, have access to the user's data. There are three levels of permissions that an app or extension may request.[182] All extensions must have a clear and singular purpose.[183]

On September 9, 2009, Google enabled extensions by default on Chrome's developer channel, and provided several sample extensions for testing.[184] In December, the Google Chrome Extensions Gallery beta began with approximately 300 extensions.[42][185] It was launched on January 25, 2010, along with Google Chrome 4.0, containing approximately 1500 extensions.[186]

In 2014, Google started preventing some Windows users from installing extensions not hosted on the Chrome Web Store.[187][188] The following year Google reported a "75% drop in customer support help requests for uninstalling unwanted extensions" which led them to expand this restriction to all Windows and Mac users.[189] Under the terms of the EULA, Google can remove or disable any extensions from a user's installation of Chrome.[12]

Notable examples

See also: Category:Google Chrome extensions


Starting with Google Chrome 3.0, users can install themes to alter the appearance of the browser.[193] Many free third-party themes are provided in an online gallery,[194] accessible through a "Get themes" button in Chrome's options.[195]

Automatic web page translation

Starting with Google Chrome 4.1 the application added a built-in translation bar using Google Translate. Language translation is currently available for 52 languages.[196] When Chrome detects a foreign language other than the user's preferred language set during the installation time, it asks the user whether or not to translate.

Release channels, cycles and updates

The first production release on December 11, 2008, marked the end of the initial Beta test period and the beginning of production. Shortly thereafter, on January 8, 2009, Google announced an updated release system with three channels: Stable (corresponding to the traditional production), Beta, and Developer preview (also called the "Dev" channel). Where there were before only two channels: Beta and Developer, now there were three. Concurrently, all Developer channel users were moved to the Beta channel along with the promoted Developer release. Google explained that now the Developer channel builds would be less stable and polished than those from the initial Google Chrome's Beta period. Beta users could opt back to the Developer channel as desired.

Each channel has its own release cycle and stability level. The Stable channel updated roughly quarterly, with features and fixes that passed "thorough" testing in the Beta channel. Beta updated roughly monthly, with "stable and complete" features migrated from the Developer channel. The Developer channel updated once or twice per week and was where ideas and features were first publicly exposed "(and sometimes fail) and can be very unstable at times". [Quoted remarks from Google's policy announcements.][197][198][199]

Google Chrome Canary application icon

On July 22, 2010, Google announced it would ramp up the speed at which it releases new stable versions; the release cycles were shortened from quarterly to six weeks for major Stable updates.[200] Beta channel releases now come roughly at the same rate as Stable releases, though approximately one month in advance, while Dev channel releases appear roughly once or twice weekly, allowing time for basic release-critical testing.[201] This faster release cycle also brought a fourth channel: the "Canary" channel, updated daily from a build produced at 09:00 UTC from the most stable of the last 40 revisions.[202] The name refers to the practice of using canaries in coal mines, so if a change "kills" Chrome Canary, it will be blocked from migrating down to the Developer channel, at least until fixed in a subsequent Canary build.[203] Canary is "the most bleeding-edge official version of Chrome and somewhat of a mix between Chrome dev and the Chromium snapshot builds". Canary releases run side by side with any other channel; it is not linked to the other Google Chrome installation and can therefore run different synchronization profiles, themes, and browser preferences. This ensures that fallback functionality remains even when some Canary updates may contain release-breaking bugs.[204] It does not natively include the option to be the default browser, although on Windows and OS X it can be set through System Preferences. Canary was Windows-only at first; an OS X version was released on May 3, 2011.[205]

The Chrome beta channel for Android was launched on January 10, 2013; like Canary, it runs side by side with the stable channel for Android.[206][207] Chrome Dev for Android was launched on April 29, 2015.[208]

All Chrome channels are automatically distributed according to their respective release cycles. The mechanism differs by platform. On Windows, it uses Google Update, and auto-update can be controlled via Group Policy.[209] Alternatively, users may download a standalone installer of a version of Chrome that does not auto-update.[210][211] On OS X, it uses Google Update Service, and auto-update can be controlled via the OS X "defaults" system.[212] On Linux, it lets the system's normal package management system supply the updates. This auto-updating behavior is a key difference from Chromium, the non-branded open-source browser which forms the core of Google Chrome. Because Chromium also serves as the pre-releasedevelopment trunk for Chrome, its revisions are provided as source code and buildable snapshots are produced continuously with each new commit, requiring users to manage their own browser updates.[213]

In March 2021, Google announced that starting with Chrome 94 in the third quarter of 2021, Google Chrome Stable releases will be made every four weeks, instead of six weeks as they have been since 2010. Also, Google announced a new release channel for system administrators and browser embedders with releases every eight weeks.[214]

Release version numbers

Releases are identified by a four-part version number, e.g. 42.0.2311.90 (Windows Stable release April 14, 2015[215]). The components are[216][217]

Major.minor reflects scheduling policy
Build.patch identifies content progression
  • Major represents a product release. These are scheduled 7–8 per year, unlike other software systems where the major version number updates only with substantial new content.
  • Minor is usually 0. References to version 'x' or 'x.0', e.g. 42.0, refer to this major.minor designation.
  • Build is ever increasing. For a release cycle, e.g. 42.0, there are several builds in the Canary and Developer period. The last build number from Developer is kept throughout Beta and Stable and is locked with the major.minor for that release.
  • Patch resets with each build, incrementing with each patch. The first patch is 0, but usually the first publicly released patch is somewhat higher. In Beta and Stable, only patch increments.

Chromium and Chrome release schedules are linked through Chromium (Major) version Branch Point dates, published annually.[216] The Branch Points precede the final Chrome Developer build (initial) release by 4 days (nearly always) and the Chrome Stable initial release by roughly 53 days.[218]

Example: The version 42 Branch Point was February 20, 2015.[216] Developer builds stopped advancing at build 2311 with release 42.0.2311.4 on February 24,[219] 4 days later. The first Stable release, 42.0.2311.90, was April 14, 2015,[215] 53 days after the Branch Point.

Color management

Main article: Color management

Chrome supports color management by using the system-provided ICC v2 and v4 support on macOS, and from version 22 supports ICC v2 profiles by default on other platforms.[220]


Main article: Dinosaur game

In Chrome, when not connected to the Internet and an error message displaying "No internet" is shown, on the top, an "8-bit" Tyrannosaurus rex is shown, but when pressing the space bar on a keyboard, mouse-clicking on it or tapping it on touch devices, the T-Rex instantly jumps once and dashes across a cactus-ridden desert, revealing it to be an Easter egg in the form of a platform game.[221][222][223][224] The game itself is an infinite runner, and there is no time limit in the game as it progresses faster and periodically tints to a black background. A school Chromebook administrator can disable the game.[225]


The current version of Chrome runs on:

As of April 2016[update], stable 32-bit and 64-bit builds are available for Windows, with only 64-bit stable builds available for Linux and macOS.[227][228][229] 64-bit Windows builds became available in the developer channel and as canary builds on June 3, 2014,[230] in the beta channel on July 30, 2014,[231] and in the stable channel on August 26, 2014.[232] 64-bit OS X builds became available as canary builds on November 7, 2013,[233][234] in the beta channel on October 9, 2014,[235] and in the stable channel on November 18, 2014.[227]

Starting with the release of version 89, Chrome will only be supported on Intel/Intel x86 and AMD processors with the SSE3 instruction set.[236][237][238]


A beta version for Android 4.0 devices was launched on February 7, 2012, available for a limited number of countries from Google Play.[242][243]

Notable features: synchronization with desktop Chrome to provide the same bookmarks and view the same browser tabs,[244] page pre-rendering,[245] hardware acceleration.[246]

Many of the latest HTML5 features: almost all of the Web Platform's features: GPU-accelerated canvas, including CSS 3D Transforms, CSS animations, SVG, WebSocket (including binary messages), Dedicated Workers; it has overflow scroll support, strong HTML5 video support, and new capabilities such as IndexedDB, WebWorkers, Application Cache and the File APIs, date- and time-pickers, parts of the Media Capture API.[245][247] Also supports mobile oriented features such as Device Orientation and Geolocation.[247]

Mobile customizations: swipe gesture tab switching,[244] link preview allows zooming in on (multiple) links to ensure the desired one is clicked,[244] font size boosting to ensure readability regardless of the zoom level.[247]

Features missing in the mobile version include sandboxed tabs,[245][248] Safe Browsing,[245] apps or extensions,[246] Adobe Flash (now and in the future),[246]Native Client,[246] and the ability to export user data such a list of their opened tabs or their browsing history into portable local files.[249]

Development changes: remote debugging,[245][250] part of the browser layer has been implemented in Java, communicating with the rest of the Chromium and WebKit code through Java Native Bindings.[247] The code of Chrome for Android is a fork of the Chromium project. It is a priority to upstream most new and modified code to Chromium and WebKit to resolve the fork.[247]

The April 17, 2012 update included availability in 31 additional languages and in all countries where Google Play is available. A desktop version of a website can also be requested as opposed to a mobile version. In addition, Android users can now add bookmarks to their Android home screens if they choose and decide which apps should handle links opened in Chrome.[251]

On June 27, 2012, Google Chrome for Android exited beta and became stable.[252][253]

Chrome 18.0.1026311, released on September 26, 2012, was the first version of Chrome for Android to support mobile devices based on Intel x86.[254]

Starting from version 25, the Chrome version for Android is aligned with the desktop version, and usually new stable releases are available at the same time between the Android and the desktop version. Google released a separate Chrome for Android beta channel on January 10, 2013, with version 25.[206] As of 2013[update] a separate beta version of Chrome is available in the Google Play Store – it can run side by side with the stable release.[255]

Chrome OS

Main article: Chrome OS

Google Chrome is the basis of Google's Chrome OS operating system that ships on specific hardware from Google's manufacturing partners.[256] The user interface has a minimalist design resembling the Google Chrome browser. Chrome OS is aimed at users who spend most of their computer time on the Web; the only applications on the devices are a browser incorporating a media player and a file manager.[257][258][259][260][261]

Google announced Chrome OS on July 7, 2009.[262]


Chrome is available on Apple's mobile iOS operating system as Google Chrome for iOS. Released in the Apple App Store on June 26, 2012, it supports the iPad, iPhone, and iPod touch, and the current version requires that the device has iOS 12.0 or greater installed.[263] In accordance with Apple's requirements for browsers released through their App Store, this version of Chrome uses the iOS WebKit – which is Apple's own mobile rendering engine and components, developed for their Safari browser – therefore it is restricted from using Google's own V8 JavaScript engine.[264][265] Chrome is the default web browser for the iOSGmail application.

In a review by Chitika, Chrome was noted as having 1.5% of the iOS web browser market as of July 18, 2012[update].[266] In October 2013, Chrome had 3% of the iOS browser market.[267]


On Linux distributions, support for 32-bit Intel processors ended in March 2016 although Chromium is still supported.[268] As of Chrome version 26, Linux installations of the browser may be updated only on systems that support GCC v4.6 and GTK v2.24 or later. Thus deprecated systems include (for example) Debian 6's 2.20, and RHEL 6's 2.18.[269]


Support for Google Chrome on Windows XP and Windows Vista ended in April 2016.[270] The last release of Google Chrome that can be run on Windows XP and Windows Vista was version 49.0.2623.112,[271] released on April 7, 2016,[272] then re-released on April 11, 2016.[273]

Support for Google Chrome on Windows 7 was supposed to end on July 15, 2021,[274] however due to the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic and enterprises are taking more time to migrate to newer Windows versions (Windows 10 or 11), the end of support date was pushed back at least another 6 months (January 15, 2022).[275]

"Windows 8 mode" was introduced in 2012 and has since been discontinued. It was provided to the developer channel, which enabled Windows 8 and Windows 8.1 users to run Chrome with a full-screen, tablet-optimized interface, with access to snapping, sharing, and search functionalities.[276] In October 2013, Windows 8 mode on the developer channel changed to use a desktop environment mimicking the interface of Chrome OS with a dedicated windowing system and taskbar for web apps.[277] This was removed on version 49 and users that have upgraded to Windows 10 will lose this feature.[278]


Google dropped support for Mac OS X 10.5 with the release of Chrome 22.[279] Support for 32-bit versions of Chrome ended in November 2014 with the release of Chrome 39.[280][281][227] Support for Mac OS X 10.6, 10.7, and 10.8 ended in April 2016 with the release of Chrome 50. Support for OS X 10.9 ended in April 2018 with the release of Chrome 66.[citation needed]


Ambox current red.svg

This section needs to be updated. Please help update this article to reflect recent events or newly available information.(June 2019)

Google Chrome was met with acclaim upon release. In 2008, Matthew Moore of The Daily Telegraph summarized the verdict of early reviewers: "Google Chrome is attractive, fast and has some impressive new features..."[282]

Initially, Microsoft reportedly played down the threat from Chrome and predicted that most people would embrace Internet Explorer 8. Opera Software said that "Chrome will strengthen the Web as the biggest application platform in the world".[283] But by February 25, 2010, BusinessWeek had reported that "For the first time in years, energy and resources are being poured into browsers, the ubiquitous programs for accessing content on the Web. Credit for this trend – a boon to consumers – goes to two parties. The first is Google, whose big plans for the Chrome browser have shaken Microsoft out of its competitive torpor and forced the software giant to pay fresh attention to its own browser, Internet Explorer. Microsoft all but ceased efforts to enhance IE after it triumphed in the last browser war, sending Netscape to its doom. Now it's back in gear."[284] Mozilla said that Chrome's introduction into the web browser market comes as "no real surprise", that "Chrome is not aimed at competing with Firefox", and furthermore that it would not affect Google's revenue relationship with Mozilla.[285][286]

Chrome's design bridges the gap between desktop and so-called "cloud computing." At the touch of a button, Chrome lets you make a desktop, Start menu, or QuickLaunch shortcut to any Web page or Web application, blurring the line between what's online and what's inside your PC. For example, I created a desktop shortcut for Google Maps. When you create a shortcut for a Web application, Chrome strips away all of the toolbars and tabs from the window, leaving you with something that feels much more like a desktop application than like a Web application or page.

— PC World[287]

With its dominance in the web browser market, Google has been accused of using Chrome and Blink development to push new web standards that are proposed in-house by Google and subsequently implemented by its services first and foremost. These have led to performance disadvantages and compatibility issues with competing browsers, and in some cases, developers intentionally refusing to test their websites on any other browser than Chrome.[288] Tom Warren of The Verge went as far as comparing Chrome to Internet Explorer 6, the default browser of Windows XP that was often targeted by competitors due to its similar ubiquity in the early 2000s.[289]

In 2019, Google similarly faced criticism over planned changes to its extensions API for Chrome (dubbed "Manifest V3"), which would inhibit the effectiveness of certain forms of ad blocking software by preventing the use of the WebRequest API to block and modify network connections. Google intends extensions to transition to another API known as DeclarativeWebRequest, which allows the extension to set up pre-configured rules that are processed by the browser itself rather than through the extension. However, concerns over how well the API would perform, in combination with concerns over a cap on the number of entries that may be blacklisted, led to criticism that these changes were designed to inhibit ad blocking (citing Google's vested interest in the online advertising industry). Google cited performance issues associated with WebRequest, as it requires all network traffic to go through the extension before the page is loaded, as well as its use in malicious extensions, as justification for these changes. In June 2019, it announced that it would increase the aforementioned cap from 30,000 to 150,000 entries to help quell concerns.[290][291][292]


Market share

Further information: Usage share of web browsers and Browser wars

Chrome overtook Firefox in November 2011, in worldwide usage. As of March 2021[update], according to StatCounter, Google Chrome had 67% worldwide desktop usage share, making it the most widely used web browser.[295]

Along with Safari and Mozilla Firefox, Chrome receives a weekend "bump", which boosts its market share by as much as three percentage points on weekends, at the expense of Internet Explorer.[296]

It was reported by StatCounter, a web analytics company, that for the single day of Sunday, March 18, 2012, Chrome was the most used web browser in the world for the first time. Chrome secured 32.7% of the global web browsing on that day, while Internet Explorer followed closely behind with 32.5%.[297]

From May 14–21, 2012, Google Chrome was for the first time responsible for more Internet traffic than Microsoft's Internet Explorer, which long had held its spot as the most used web browser in the world.[298] According to StatCounter, 31.88% of web traffic was generated by Chrome for a sustained period of one week and 31.47% by Internet Explorer. Though Chrome had topped Internet Explorer for a single day's usage in the past, this was the first time it had led for one full week.[299]

At the 2012 Google I/O developers' conference, Google claimed that there were 310 million active users of Chrome, almost double the number in 2011, which was stated as 160 million active users.[300]

In June 2013, according to StatCounter, Chrome overtook Internet Explorer for the first time in the US.[301]

In August 2013, Chrome was used by 43% of internet users worldwide. This study was done by Statista, which also noted that in North America, 36% of people use Chrome, the lowest in the world.[302]

As of May 2020[update], Chrome is the most used browser in every country.[304]

Enterprise deployment

In December 2010, Google announced that to make it easier for businesses to use Chrome they would provide an official Chrome MSI package. For business use it is helpful to have full-fledged MSI packages that can be customized via transform files (.mst) – but the MSI provided with Chrome is only a very limited MSI wrapper fitted around the normal installer, and many businesses find that this arrangement does not meet their needs.[305] The normal downloaded Chrome installer puts the browser in the user's local app data directory and provides invisible background updates, but the MSI package will allow installation at the system level, providing system administrators control over the update process[306] – it was formerly possible only when Chrome was installed using Google Pack. Google also created group policy objects to fine-tune the behavior of Chrome in the business environment, for example by setting automatic updates intervals, disabling auto-updates, and configuring a home page.[307] Until version 24 the software is known not to be ready for enterprise deployments with roaming profiles or Terminal Server/Citrix environments.[308]

In 2010, Google first started supporting Chrome in enterprise environments by providing an MSI wrapper around the Chrome installer. Google starting providing group policy objects, with more added each release,[309] and today there are more than 500 policies available to control Chrome's behavior in enterprise environments.[310] In 2016, Google launched Chrome Browser Enterprise Support, a paid service enabling IT admins access to Google experts to support their browser deployment.[311] In 2019, Google launched Chrome Browser Cloud Management, a dashboard that gives business IT managers the ability to control content accessibility, app usage and browser extensions installed on its deployed computers.[312]


Main article: Chromium (web browser)

In September 2008, Google released a large portion of Chrome's source code as an open-source project called Chromium. This move enabled third-party developers to study the underlying source code and to help port the browser to the macOS and Linux operating systems. The Google-authored portion of Chromium is released under the permissive BSD license.[313] Other portions of the source code are subject to a variety of open-source licenses.[314] Chromium is similar to Chrome, but lacks built-in automatic updates and a built-in Flash player, as well as Google branding and has a blue-colored logo instead of the multicolored Google logo.[315][316] Chromium does not implement user RLZ tracking.[117][112][317] Initially, the Google Chrome PDF viewer, PDFium, was excluded from Chromium, but was later made open-source in May 2014.[318][319] PDFium can be used to fill PDF forms.[320]

Developing for Chrome

It is possible to develop applications, extensions, and themes for Chrome. They are zipped in a .crx file and contain a manifest file that specifies basic information (such as version, name, description, privileges, etc.), and other files for the user interface (icons, popups, etc.). Google has an official developer's guide.[321] Chrome has its own web store where users and developers can upload and download these applications and extensions.[322]

Impersonation by malware

As with Microsoft Internet Explorer, the popularity of Google Chrome has led to the appearance of malware abusing its name. In late 2015, an adware replica of Chrome named "eFast" appeared, which would usurp the Google Chrome installation and hijack file type associations to make shortcuts for common file types and communication protocols link to itself, and inject advertisements into web pages. Its similar-looking icon was intended to deceive users.[323][324][325]

See also



  1. ^"Stable Channel Update for Desktop". November 15, 2021. Retrieved November 15, 2021.
  2. ^"Chrome for Android Update". November 15, 2021. Retrieved November 15, 2021.
  3. ^"Chrome for iOS Update". November 9, 2021. Retrieved November 9, 2021.
  4. ^"Extended Stable Channel Update for Desktop". October 28, 2021. Retrieved October 29, 2021.
  5. ^"Beta Channel Update for Desktop". November 11, 2021. Retrieved November 11, 2021.
  6. ^"Chromium (Google Chrome)". Retrieved February 8, 2012.
  7. ^"Chromium coding style". Google Open Source. Retrieved March 29, 2017.
  8. ^
  9. ^Nyquist, Tommy (January 14, 2020). "PSA: Android KitKat will soon be deprecated in the Chromium code base". Google Groups. Retrieved June 6, 2020.
  10. ^"Google Chrome (iOS)".
  11. ^"Supported languages". Google Play Console Help. Retrieved December 18, 2015.
  12. ^ abcd"Google Chrome and Chrome OS Additional Terms of Service".
  13. ^Ashford, Warwick (September 2, 2008). "Google launches beta version of Chrome web browser". Archived from the original on April 11, 2021.
  14. ^"Google Chrome for Android". Retrieved June 20, 2020.
  15. ^ abBright, Peter (April 3, 2013). "Google going its own way, forking WebKit rendering engine". Ars Technica. Conde Nast. Retrieved March 9, 2017.
  16. ^"Open-sourcing Chrome on iOS!". 2017. Retrieved April 26, 2021.
  17. ^"Desktop Browser Market Share Worldwide". StatCounter Global Stats. Retrieved October 13, 2021.
  18. ^"Tablet Browser Market Share Worldwide". StatCounter Global Stats. Retrieved October 13, 2021.
  19. ^"Tablet Browser Market Share Worldwide". StatCounter Global Stats. Retrieved March 15, 2021.
  20. ^"Browser Market Share Worldwide (Jan 2009 - September 2021)". Retrieved October 13, 2021.
  21. ^Angwin, Julia (July 9, 2009). "Sun Valley: Schmidt Didn't Want to Build Chrome Initially, He Says". WSJ Digits Blog. Retrieved May 25, 2010.
  22. ^"Rumours surround Google browser". September 23, 2004 – via
  23. ^Kurtuldu, Mustafa (September 8, 2018). "How we designed Chrome 10 years ago". Archived from the original on April 11, 2021.
  24. ^Bhardwaj, Prachi (June 29, 2018). "Larry Page has a reputation for pushing people at Google". Business Insider. Retrieved January 3, 2020.
  25. ^McCloud, Scott (September 1, 2008). "Surprise!". Google Blogoscoped. Retrieved September 1, 2008.
  26. ^Lenssen, Philipp (September 1, 2008). "Google Chrome, Google's Browser Project". Retrieved September 1, 2008.
  27. ^Lenssen, Philipp (September 1, 2008). "Google on Google Chrome – comic book". Google Blogoscoped. Retrieved September 1, 2008.
  28. ^ abcdefghijk"Google Chrome comic". Google Book Search. September 1, 2008. Retrieved September 2, 2008.
  29. ^ abPichai, Sundar; Upson, Linus (September 1, 2008). "A fresh take on the browser". Official Google Blog. Retrieved March 9, 2017.
  30. ^Dougerty, Conor (July 12, 2015). "Sundar Pichai of Google Talks About Phone Intrusion". New York Times. Archived from the original on July 19, 2015. Retrieved April 25, 2019.
  31. ^Murphy, Glen (December 18, 2012). "Why is Google Chrome browser named as Chrome?". Retrieved July 6, 2020.
  32. ^"It was when not if... Google Chrome". September 2008. Archived from the original on December 8, 2016. Retrieved June 21, 2017.

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Based in Sweden. Operating since 2009. Accepts Bitcoin, BCH and Cash. Native desktop and mobile clients are available for Android and iOS and are easy to use. Money back guarantee for 30 days.

Amount of servers in Oct 2021: 763 VPN servers, in 38 different countries. Source

ProtonVPN: Limited free version available, otherwise 48 EUR Yearly

Freemium Win Android iOS Mac Linux Bitcoin

Based in Switzerland. Operating since 2016. Accepts Bitcoin, but you need an existing account or contact their support team in advance. Easy to use native desktop and mobile clients are available for Android and iOS.

Amount of servers in Oct 2021: 1200+ VPN servers available in 55 different countries. Source

IVPN: 60 USD Yearly

Win Android iOS Mac Linux Bitcoin Monero Cash

Based in Gibraltar. Operating since 2009. Accepts Bitcoin, Monero and Cash. Native desktop and mobile clients are available for Android and iOS and are easy to use. Money back guarantee for 30 days.

Amount of servers in Oct 2021: 139 VPN servers available in 32 different countries. Source


Friendly reminder

Using a VPN will not keep your browsing habits anonymous, nor will it add additional security to non-secure (HTTP) traffic. If you are looking for anonymity, you should use the Tor Browser instead of a VPN. Don't replace good security practices with a VPN service. If you're looking for additional privacy from your ISP, on a public Wi-Fi network, or while torrenting files, a VPN may be the solution for you.

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“What is right is not always the same as what is legal” ― Edward Snowden

Private Email Providers

ProtonMail: Secure email for the independent professional

Freemium Encryption Tor Bitcoin Web Android iOS

Based in Switzerland, founded in 2013. Free and paid plans include all security features, including end-to-end encryption, zero-access encryption, anti-phishing, anti-spam and 2FA. Own Android, iOS Apps and web interface. Paid plans enable custom domains. Accessible via Tor Network.

Tutanota: Easy to use and private by design

Freemium Encryption Win Android iOS Mac Linux Web

Based in Germany, founded in 2011. Native cross platform apps available. Paid plans enable custom domains. No third-party email clients are supported, users need to use the wide range of native apps.

Disroot: Secure email for your desktop client or via a web interface

Free Plan Encryption Web

Based in The Netherlands, founded in 2015. Free plans support custom domains. Users can choose between their web client or third party desktop clients like Thunderbird. Disroot allows for encrypted emails to be sent from their webmail application using OpenPGP.

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“We watch our own people more closely than anyone else in the world.” ― Edward Snowden

Anonymous Email Forwarding with Aliases

SimpleLogin: Hide your existing email address

Freemium Android iOS Firefox Chrome Safari Web

Emails are forwarded to your real email address. If you reply to a sender it will use your alias, too. It is designed to be user friendly and available on many platforms.

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“You can't assume any place you go is private because the means of surveillance are becoming so affordable and so invisible.” ― Howard Rheingold

Email Clients for better Internet Privacy

Android - K-9 Mail: Advanced Email for your phone


K-9 Mail is an open source email client focused on making it easy to chew through large volumes of email. Designed for both novice and power users and offers lots of features for everyone.

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“I had been looking for leaders, but I realized that leadership is about being the first to act.” ― Edward Snowden

Web Search without being tracked

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“I don't want to live in a society that does these sort of things... I do not want to live in a world where everything I do and say is recorded. That is not something I am willing to support or live under.” ― Edward Snowden

The Best Privacy-Friendly World Maps Alternatives

Avoid: Apple Maps, Bing Maps, Google Earth and Google Maps.

Organic Maps: Offline hike, bike, trails and navigation

Android iOS Huawei AppGallery

Organic Maps is an Android & iOS offline maps app for travelers, tourists, hikers, and cyclists based on top of crowd-sourced OpenStreetMap data and curated with love by MapsWithMe (Maps.Me) founders.

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“Under observation, we act less free, which means we effectively are less free.” ― Edward Snowden

Secure Password Managers

Spectre: Generated passwords, no storage needed

Win Android iOS Mac Linux Web

Formerly Master Password. Passwords aren't stored: they are generated on-demand from your name, the site, and your master password. No syncing, backups, or internet access needed. The Windows version requires to install Java. Same principle like LessPass, but LessPass is more convenient to use because of the Browser Addons.

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“Society develops a type of self-censorship, with the knowledge that surveillance exists - a self-censorship that is even expressed when people communicate with each other privately.” ― Julian Assange

Privacy Two-Factor Authentication (2FA) Tools

Avoid: Authy or Google Authenticator.

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“My sole motive is to inform the public as to that which is done in their name and that which is done against them.” ― Edward Snowden

File Sharing and Synchronizating

OnionShare: Anonymous file transfer via Tor

Tor Win Mac Linux

OnionShare is an open source tool that lets you securely and anonymously share files, host websites, and chat with friends using the Tor network. Share files, host websites, and chat anonymously via a new tabbed interface for maximum productivity.

Syncthing: Continuous file synchronization

Win Android Mac Linux

Synchronizes files between two or more computers in real time, safely protected from prying eyes. Your data is your data alone and you deserve to choose where it is stored, whether it is shared with some third party, and how it's transmitted over the internet.

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“We'd do well to remember that at the end of the day, the law doesn't defend us; we defend the law. And when it becomes contrary to our morals, we have both the right and the responsibility to rebalance it toward just ends.” ― Edward Snowden

File Encryption Software

VeraCrypt: On-the-fly Disk Encryption

Win Mac Linux Raspberry Pi

It can create a virtual encrypted disk that works just like a regular disk but within a file. It can also encrypt a partition or the entire storage device with pre-boot authentication.

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“The way to make people trustworthy is to trust them.” ― Ernest Hemingway

Encrypted Cloud Storage Services

Avoid: Dropbox, Google Drive, Microsoft OneDrive and Apple iCloud.

Nextcloud: Self-hosting or choose a provider for your data

Win Android iOS Mac Linux Web

Nextcloud is functionally similar to Dropbox, Office 365 or Google Drive. It can be hosted in the cloud or on-premises. It is scalable from home office solutions based on the low cost Raspberry Pi all the way through to full sized data centre solutions that support millions of users.

If you're not able to switch your cloud service immediatly, consider encrypting with Cryptomator.

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“If wars can be started by lies, they can be stopped by truth.” ― Julian Assange

Secure Web Hosting & Domain Provider

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“If you want to keep a secret, you must also hide it from yourself.” ― George Orwell, 1984

Buy Cryptocurrency

Binance: Largest cryptocurrency exchange world-wide with P2P Feature

Affiliated Win Android iOS Mac Linux Web Monero KYC required

Founded in 2017 and became quickly the largest exchange in the world in terms of daily trading volume of cryptocurrencies. P2P trading available. Update: Sep 17, 2021: Binance requires all users to get verified.

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“I had been looking for leaders, but I realized that leadership is about being the first to act.” ― Edward Snowden

Monero: A privacy-enhanced cryptocurrency for anonymity

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“Surveillance is the business model of the Internet.” ― Bruce Schneier

Privacy-enhancing Bitcoin Wallets

CoinJoin is a trustless method for combining multiple Bitcoin payments from multiple spenders into a single transaction to make it more difficult for outside parties to determine which spender paid which recipient. Unlike many other privacy solutions, coinjoin transactions do not require a modification to the bitcoin protocol.

Samourai: Android Wallet

Tor CoinJoin Android Phones Tablets

Built-in trustless CoinJoin. Full offline mode. Designed to keep miner fees as low as possible.

BitLox: Hardware Wallet

Affiliated Tor Android iOS Chrome Web

Fully secured cryptocurrency wallet with the mind of keeping your Bitcoin transactions anonymous. Their Bitcoin Block Explorer is accessible over the Tor and I2P network.

Wasabi: Desktop Wallet

Tor CoinJoin Win Mac Linux

Non-custodial, privacy-focused Bitcoin wallet for Desktop, that implements trustless CoinJoin.

More information:

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“You can't assume any place you go is private because the means of surveillance are becoming so affordable and so invisible.” ― Howard Rheingold

Crytpo DeFi Swap on a Decentralized Exchange (DEX)

Cryptocurrency exchanges which allow for direct peer-to-peer cryptocurrency transactions to take place securely and without the need for a third party to oversee transfer of assets. DEX are more anonymous than commercial exchanges which implement know your customer (KYC) requirements. This list is sorted by trading volume.

Telegram Channels are targeted by scammers, don't share your key phrases with anyone. Admins of the official channels are not sending private messages to users. Beware of anyone reaching out via private message.

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“WAR IS PEACE.” ― Ministry of Truth

Encrypted and Secure Instant Messaging

Avoid: Facebook Messenger, Google Hangouts, LINE, Telegram, Snapchat, Tencent QQ, Viber, WeChat, WhatsApp.

Threema: Centralized, encrypted messaging for mobile

Paid Android iOS Huawei AppGallery Web Bitcoin

No native desktop apps available yet, but there is a web version for your browser. No phone number is required to signup but there is a payment involved to get the app. Fortunately the Threema shop accepts Bitcoin.

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“FREEDOM IS SLAVERY.” ― Ministry of Truth

Encrypted Video & Voice Messengers

Avoid: Skype, Zoom, TeamSpeak, Discord and Ventrilo.

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“If you want to keep a secret, you must also hide it from yourself.” ― George Orwell, 1984

DNS Network Level Ad Blocking for better Privacy and Speed

NextDNS: Blocks security threats, ads and trackers

Easy to Setup Win Android iOS Mac Linux Browsers Router

The major advantage of NextDNS over AdGuard DNS is to be able to configure the service to your needs via parental controls, website restrictions or block whole categories of websites and apps. Easy to setup within minutes. Comes with setup guides for all systems. 300,000 queries/month for free, after that it will just work like a classic non-blocking DNS service.

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“The government should be afraid of the people, the people shouldn't be afraid of the government.” ― Edward Snowden

YouTube Alternatives

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“The reason you're reading this book is that I did a dangerous thing for a man in my position: I decided to tell the truth.” ― Edward Snowden

Decentralized Social Networks

Redact: Delete your digital footprint

Sponsored Win Mac Linux Closed-Source

Allows you to automatically clean up your old posts from services like Twitter, Reddit, Facebook, Discord and more all in one place. Delete by key word, sentiment and content type.

Tip of the day:

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“Transparency is for those who carry out public duties and exercise public power. Privacy is for everyone else.” ― Glenn Greenwald

Blog Software for Self and Managed Hosting

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“My sole motive is to inform the public as to that which is done in their name and that which is done against them.” ― Edward Snowden

Encrypted Digital Notebooks

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“There is a massive apparatus within the US government that with complete secrecy has been building this enormous structure that has only one goal, and that is to destroy privacy and anonymity, not just in the United States but around the world.” ― Glenn Greenwald

Productivity & Collaboration Privacy Tools for Work

LibreOffice: Complete desktop office solution

Win Mac Linux

LibreOffice consists of programs for word processing, creating and editing of spreadsheets, slideshows, diagrams and drawings, working with databases, and composing mathematical formulae. It is available in 115 languages.

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“Society develops a type of self-censorship, with the knowledge that surveillance exists - a self-censorship that is even expressed when people communicate with each other privately.” ― Julian Assange

Privacy Friendly Operating Systems

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“Who controls the past controls the future. Who controls the present controls the past.” ― George Orwell, 1984

Privacy and Security Tools for Windows 10 and 11

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“2 + 2 = 5” ― Ministry of Truth

Privacy Friendly Mobile Operating Systems

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“Facebook in particular is the most appalling spying machine that has ever been invented” ― Julian Assange

Android Keyboard Alternatives That Respect Your Privacy

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“The solution to government surveillance is to encrypt everything” ― Eric Schmidt

Open Source Router Firmware

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“Nothing to hide, but nothing to show either.”

Privacy Friendly Translation Tools

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“Facebook in particular is the most appalling spying machine that has ever been invented” ― Julian Assange

Self-Contained Anonymizing Networks

Tor: Most popular, biggest and cross-platform network available

Anonymity Encryption Win Android iOS Mac Linux

Tor, short for The Onion Router, is for enabling anonymous communication. It directs Internet traffic through a free, worldwide, volunteer overlay network, consisting of more than six thousand relays, for concealing a user's location and usage from anyone conducting network surveillance or traffic analysis.

I2P: Censorshipo-resistant peer-to-peer network

Win Android Mac Linux

The Invisible Internet Project (I2P) is an anonymous network layer that allows for censorship-resistant, peer-to-peer communication. Anonymous connections are achieved by end-to-end encrypting the user's traffic, and sending it through a volunteer-run network of roughly 55,000 computers distributed around the world.

ZeroNet: Uses existing Bitcoin cryptography and the BitTorrent network

Win Android Mac Linux

ZeroNet is a decentralized web-like network of peer-to-peer users. Instead of having an IP address, sites are identified by a public key (specifically a bitcoin address). The private key allows the owner of a site to sign and publish changes, which propagate through the network. Sites can be accessed through an ordinary web browser when using the ZeroNet application, which acts as a local webhost for such pages.

IPFS: Protocol and P2P network for storing and sharing data

Win Mac Linux

The InterPlanetary File System (IPFS) is a protocol and peer-to-peer network for storing and sharing data in a distributed file system. IPFS uses content-addressing to uniquely identify each file in a global namespace connecting all computing devices

GNUnet: Software framework in support of a free and open society

Linux (official) Win (unofficial) Mac (unofficial)

For decentralized, peer-to-peer networking and an official GNU package. The framework offers link encryption, peer discovery, resource allocation, communication over many transports (such as TCP, UDP, HTTP, HTTPS, WLAN and Bluetooth) and various basic peer-to-peer algorithms for routing, multicast and network size estimation.

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“Facebook in particular is the most appalling spying machine that has ever been invented” ― Julian Assange

Open Source Torrent Clients without Ads and Tracking

Your IP address is exposed while using any Torrent Client. Consider using a VPN provider to hide your IP. If you are using µTorrent that includes ads and tracking, select your alternative here.

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“IGNORANCE IS STRENGTH.” ― Ministry of Truth

Disk & File Cleaners with Privacy Features

ExifCleaner: Privacy metadata removal tool

Fast Win Mac Linux

Removes metadata for the most popular image and video formats. It also supports PDF files and comes with batch-processing to process multiple files at once. Drag and Drop interface, easy to use.

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“If wars can be started by lies, they can be stopped by truth.” ― Julian Assange

RSS Feed Readers

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“Nothing to hide, but nothing to show either.”

Secure Whistleblower Tools

Briar: P2P encrypted messaging for activists and journalists

Tor Android Phones Tablets

Briar doesn't rely on a central server - messages are synchronized directly between the users' devices via Bluetooth or Wi-Fi. Online sync via the Tor network is possible, too. Protecting users from surveillance.

OnionShare: Anonymous file transfer via Tor

Tor Win Mac Linux

OnionShare is an open source tool that lets you securely and anonymously share files, host websites, and chat with friends using the Tor network. Share files, host websites, and chat anonymously via a new tabbed interface for maximum productivity.

Worth Mentioning:

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“I had been looking for leaders, but I realized that leadership is about being the first to act.” ― Edward Snowden

Known Privacy Related Incidents & Gag Orders to Date

2021, ProtonMail: ProtonMail logged IP address of French activist after an order by Swiss authorities. Source

2021, WindScribe VPN: Servers were not encrypted as they should have been allowing MITM attacks by authorities. Source

2021, DoubleVPN: Servers, logs, and account info seized by law enforcement. Source

2017, PureVPN: Forced to disclose information of one user to the FBI. Source

2014, EarthVPN: User was arrested based on logs provider to the Dutch Polic because of a bomb hoax. Source

2013, Lavabit Email: Secure E-Mail provider Lavabit shuts down after fighting a secret gag order. Source

2011, HideMyAss VPN: User was de-anonymized, and logs were provided to the FBI in a labeled "LulzSec fiasco". Source

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What is a Warrant Canary?

A term for a regularly published statement that a service provider has not received legal process that it would be prohibited from saying it had received, such as a national security letter. Transparency reports and warrant canaries have an important role to play in the fight against illegal and unconstitutional national security process, including National Security Letters and other secret court processes. Wikipedia

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“The reason you're reading this book is that I did a dangerous thing for a man in my position: I decided to tell the truth.” ― Edward Snowden

For easy copy & paste on social media platforms, messengers and emails.

Brave Browser 1.32.106 Crack 2022

Brave Browser 1.32.106 Crack with Activation Key Free Download 2022

Brave Browser 1.32.106 Crack is the latest unique browser to join the ever-expanding market. The open-source and free browser from Brave Software Inc. has positioned itself as the browser that loads faster with better privacy protection. The browser keeps data safe and provides users with the power to save or delete it.  It features a built-in ad tracker and blocker. Unlike most common browsers, Brave also helps to fight phishing and malware.

Different apps are being developed and released for the Android operating system, each of which can give you the opportunity to do various tasks.Some of these apps are on the phone by default and you can have more features by installing the new program.

Brave Browser Key app is a very functional Android browser that you can easily surf the Web with the installation and running of it.There are a few tips on using browsers in which speed and security are among the top priorities for users.This excellent browser can provide you with exceptional speed so you can download web pages for less time and use the ability to reduce data usage.

Brave Browser 1.32.106 Crack Plus Torrent

The Brave Browser Patch app is a very functional Android browser that you can easily surf the Web with the installation and running of it.There are a few tips on using browsers in which speed and security are among the top priorities for users.This awesome browser can provide you with great speed so you can download web pages for less time and use the ability to reduce data usage.

Brave Browser Crack is an enjoyable and fun browser that lets you surf the Internet most simply.The program has a straightforward and easy interface, and you can open various tabs.And for optimal use of battery optimizations, you will have a little use.The program has also done a lot of work, and you can browse and browse scripts without worrying about tracking.

Brave Browser 1.32.106 Crack automatically blocks ads and trackers, making it faster and safer than your current browser. It’s amazing how fast a page loads when you strip away everything but the real content. Up to a whopping 60% of page load time is caused by the underlying ad technology that loads into various places each time you hit a page on your favorite news site.

Brave Browser Crack & License Key

New Brave Browser automatically blocks 64-bit ads and trackers for cracking, making it faster and safer than your current browser. It’s not surprising how quickly you load a page without leaving everything behind. Up to 60% of page load time is due to the necessary advertising technology that pops up every time you hit a page on your favorite news site. And 20 of these are done from time to time packing things you are trying to find out more about – download the brave browser crack for 64-bit offline installer setup.

This awesome browser can provide you with great speed so you can download web pages for less time and use the ability to reduce data usage.Also, this browser is equipped with an ad-blocker ad blocker and you can see all web pages being advertisements like pop-up advertisements. Overall, Brave Browser Crack is a fast web browser that has a crisp, trimmed-down interface, which is simple to use, and a joy to navigate the web with. Upon testing, we were able to navigate to our favorite websites at hardly any time at all, with no glitches in sight. The security tools are first-rate, and the fact you can help out developers by giving back to the community is a real bonus feature. All in all, Brave is a browser to check out.

Take Back Control with Brave!

Block data-grabbing ads and trackers!

The vast bulk of websites and ads include software that tries to identify you. They want to track your every move across the web. Brave blocks all this, allowing you to browse freely.

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Brave loads major news sites up to six times faster than Chrome, Safari, and Firefox on mobile and desktop.

Browse much more privately with Tor!

Other browsers claim to have a “private mode,” but this only hides your history from others using your browser. Brave lets you use Tor right in a tab. Tor not only hides your history but also masks your location from the sites you visit by routing your browsing through several servers before it reaches your destination. These connections are encrypted to increase anonymity.

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IPFS is a peer-to-peer hypermedia protocol designed to make the Web faster, safer, and more open. IPFS has been integrated into Brave’s desktop browser. Brave’s users can now access content directly from IPFS by resolving URIs via a gateway or installing a full IPFS node in one click. Integrating IPFS provides Brave users with a significantly enhanced browsing experience, increasing the availability of content, offloading server costs from the content publisher, and improving the overall resilience of the Internet.

Key Features:

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  • Optimized for less battery consumption
  • Optimized for less Internet volume usage
  • Ability to prevent tracking your site
  • Use HTTPS Secure Protocols
  • Blocking scripts
  • Ability to add different pages to the bookmarks
  • View browser history
  • Ability to open private tabs
  • Ability to open recent tabs
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  • Ability to start Personal tabs
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  • It is extreme and difficult to figure out how to utilize the VSDC Video supervisor
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  • 7G6F5-D456C-678N7-786C5-X4CV7
  • 8H7G6-FD45F-G8HG7-F85FV-465GD
  • 8HG67-F577H-876V8-BNMB7-94WF
  • 8J99H-7G675-46X5C-6VB78-78FGN


  • New: Added User tags that can detect from the original document
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  • For New: Option to remove text based on formatting
  • New: Send generated PDF automatically via Outlook
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  • For New: Page visibility options by size and orientation
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  • Updated: The add-in for Office applications was re-stylized
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Brave Browser 1.32.106 Crack 2022

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Brave Browser 1.32.106 Crack is the newest unique browser joining the growing market constantly. Open source and free browser from Brave Software Inc. The same as a browser that loads faster with better privacy protection.

The browser stores secure data and offer users the option to save or delete it. It features tracking and built-in blocking. Unlike most popular browsers, Brave Browser Crack also helps to combat phishing and malware. Different apps are being developed and released for Android, and each can offer you the ability to perform different tasks. Some of these applications are standard on your phone and you can get more functions by installing the new software.

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The new 64-bit Brave browser automatically blocks ads and trackers, making it faster and safer than your current browser. It’s amazing how fast a page loads when everything is deleted, except the actual content. Up to 60% of page load time is due to the underlying advertising technology that is uploaded to multiple places each time you access a page of your favorite news site. And 20% of this time is spent loading things that try to learn more about you. Brave, under the hood, is a web browser based on Chromium, which means that its performance and web compatibility are very similar to other Chromium-based browsers.

Brave Browser 1.32.106 Crack and Keygen:

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Brave Browser Crack

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  • Downloadand install the trial version.
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Official Link.

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5 Replies to “Brave browser extensions - Crack Key For U”

  1. I've tried a few conversions of MKV files with intent on editing the files later. But the audio won't work when playing in the editing software

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