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CD Rates

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  • 3-month term

    %APY

    Annual Percentage Yield (APY) is accurate as of XX/XX/XXXX, is subject to change without notice, and will be determined and fixed for the term at funding.  Applies to personal accounts only. A penalty may be charged for early withdrawal. Minimum deposit to open is $2,500.    

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    Annual Percentage Yield (APY) is accurate as of XX/XX/XXXX, is subject to change without notice, and will be determined and fixed for the term at funding.  Applies to personal accounts only. A penalty may be charged for early withdrawal. Minimum deposit to open is $2,500.    

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    Annual Percentage Yield (APY) is accurate as of XX/XX/XXXX, is subject to change without notice, and will be determined and fixed for the term at funding.  Applies to personal accounts only. A penalty may be charged for early withdrawal. Minimum deposit to open is $2,500.    

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    Annual Percentage Yield (APY) is accurate as of XX/XX/XXXX, is subject to change without notice, and will be determined and fixed for the term at funding.  Applies to personal accounts only. A penalty may be charged for early withdrawal. Minimum deposit to open is $2,500.    

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  • 30-month term

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  • 3-year term

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  • 4-year term

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    Annual Percentage Yield (APY) is accurate as of XX/XX/XXXX, is subject to change without notice, and will be determined and fixed for the term at funding.  Applies to personal accounts only. A penalty may be charged for early withdrawal. Minimum deposit to open is $2,500.    

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  • 5-year term

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    Annual Percentage Yield (APY) is accurate as of XX/XX/XXXX, is subject to change without notice, and will be determined and fixed for the term at funding.  Applies to personal accounts only. A penalty may be charged for early withdrawal. Minimum deposit to open is $2,500.    

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  • 10-year term

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Assumes principal and interest remain on deposit and interest rate and APY do not change for one year. The estimated values shown are for illustrative and informational purposes only and may not apply to your individual circumstances.

%APY

Annual Percentage Yield (APY) is accurate as of XX/XX/XXXX, is subject to change without notice, and will be determined and fixed for the term at funding.  Applies to personal accounts only. A penalty may be charged for early withdrawal. Minimum deposit to open is $2,500.


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Bond Wizard

Non-deposit investment products: NOT FDIC INSURED/NO BANK GUARANTEE/MAY LOSE VALUE.

Fixed income products are subject to availability and change in price. Availability of products and services may vary by jurisdiction.

Investments in fixed income products are subject to liquidity (or market) risk, interest rate risk (bonds ordinarily decline in price when interest rates rise and rise in price when interest rates fall), financial (or credit) risk, inflation (or purchasing power) risk and special tax liabilities. May be worth less than the original cost upon redemption.

TD Ameritrade is not responsible for ensuring that your use of the Bond Wizard tool is suitable for your specific financial situation.

You may want to consult an attorney or tax professional regarding the bonds you select for your portfolio prior to purchasing them. You must perform your own evaluation of whether the securities held in your portfolio are consistent with your investment objectives, risk tolerance and financial situation.

This is not an offer or solicitation in any jurisdiction where we are not authorized to do business or where such offer or solicitation would be contrary to the local laws and regulations of that jurisdiction, including, but not limited to persons residing in Australia, Canada, Hong Kong, Japan, Saudi Arabia, Singapore, UK, and the countries of the European Union.

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Источник: https://www.tdameritrade.com/research/bonds-and-cds/bond-wizard.html

If you don't have a credit score, it may be because there isn't enough information in your credit history, or because there aren't any records there at all. Credit scores are generated using scoring algorithms, or advanced statistical models that use the information in your credit history to assign you a three-digit score. Without enough credit history, the algorithm won't have enough information to fairly assess you and likely won't be able to assign you a credit score.

Reasons You May Not Have a Credit Score

There are a number of reasons you may not have enough credit history to generate a credit score, which can include:

  1. You have never used traditional credit accounts. Your credit history will begin only when a creditor—such as a credit card issuer or lender—reports a record of you opening an account to one or more of the three major credit bureaus (Experian, TransUnion and Equifax). Without at least some record of credit in your name, a credit score cannot be populated as there is no past behavior on which to assess your creditworthiness. If you tend to use cash or debit and don't rely on any credit, you could have nothing in your credit history and lack a credit score as a result.
  1. You have not used credit in more than 24 months. Once you've opened an account it's important to use it—at least occasionally—so lenders and scoring algorithms can see how you are handling your credit. If you have credit but don't use it for more than 24 months, your credit file may lack the data necessary to populate a credit score. Remember, payment history is one of the most important aspects of calculating your credit score, so the more on-time payment activity you have, the better your score will be.
  1. You're a recent immigrant. Immigrants often don't have a credit score because they have never before applied for or used credit in the United States. Even if you have an established credit score from another country, none of those records will count toward your U.S. credit score. If you're an immigrant, consider opening a line of credit as soon as possible to establish your credit history and begin building your score.
  1. You're young and have no experience with credit. Many young people don't have credit and may have no idea where to start. Since your credit history begins only when a creditor reports a new account to the credit bureaus, starting early is key to having a top score later in life. To establish credit as a young consumer, consider applying for a credit card and using it for essential purchases. Remember to pay all your bills on time, as payment history is the most important aspect of having a good score.
  1. You've only recently applied for credit for the first time. If you're new to credit and just applied for a new account, it may take some time before you see a credit score. Since credit scores are based on your past experience managing debt, in many cases you'll need to make several payments or have your new account open for a period of time before a scoring algorithm will have enough data to establish your credit score.

Why Do You Want a Credit Score?

Credit scores are an important aspect of your financial health, and having a good score can mean improved access to loans and better interest rates and borrowing terms. Obtaining new credit is often dependent on a credit check, where a lender evaluates your borrowing history and decides whether to approve you for the loan. Having a good credit score in this process can help you get approved and also can help you get better terms and interest rates that will save you money over the life of the loan.

People with higher credit scores can shop around with multiple lenders to find the loan with the best terms and the lowest rate. Lower interest rates can save you a lot of money over time: Reducing a mortgage loan's interest by just one percentage point can result in tens of thousands of dollars in savings.

What Is a Good Credit Score?

Of the many scoring models—each of which uses a different algorithm to calculate a score—the FICO® Score, which is most commonly used by lenders, has a range between 300 and 850.

For FICO® Scores between 300 and 850, the ranges are categorized as follows:

  • 800 and above: Exceptional
  • 740 to 799: Very Good
  • 670 to 739: Good
  • 580 to 669: Fair
  • 579 and below: Very Poor

To have a very good or exceptional score, you'll need to have a long and sustained history of making payments on time. Payment history is the most important aspect of calculating credit scores and any blemishes in it can negatively impact your scores. Other things that factor into your score include how long you've been using credit, how much debt you have, what types of credit you use and how often you apply for new credit.

How to Establish Credit

The good news is that there are plenty of ways to build credit if you've never had experience with it before:

  1. Apply for a Secured Credit Card

Secured credit cards are perfect for users trying to build a payment history from the ground up. They work like other credit cards when you make a purchase, but you must make a cash deposit when you open the account to back up your usage. That deposit, which is typically the same amount as your credit limit, is what "secures" the card.

Otherwise, you use the card in the same way: Make purchases, pay them off by the due date and pay interest on any charges you don't pay off in full. If you don't make your payments, however, your secured deposit is deducted.

Typically, you can use a secured card for a period of time to build up a credit history, after which you can convert the card to an unsecured option or apply for a regular credit card.

  1. Get a Cosigner on a Credit Card

You can also apply for a credit card with a cosigner who has solid payment history. This is a good option for students who are just starting out and can get a card with their parents. However, the cosigner should know that if you do miss payments or carry a huge balance, their credit scores will also be affected.

  1. Apply for a Retail Store Card

The first credit cards for some people are often retail store cards, which can be easier to qualify for and typically offer lower credit limits. They can also qualify you for discounts on purchases at that retailer. If you don't have much history with credit, retail cards can be a possible option for establishing a credit history, but they can also include some pitfalls, like high interest rates and fees.

  1. Get a Credit-Builder Loan

Credit-builder loans are solely designed to help you improve your credit score, so they function differently than other loans. Instead of giving you the loan amount up front, the lender sets it aside in a savings or certificate of deposit (CD) account.

Then, once you've finished making payments, the lender gives you the funds, plus the interest accrued from the savings or CD account. Since the lender holds onto the cash from the beginning, many credit-builder loans offer decent interest rates.

Make sure the lender reports your payment history to Experian or one of the other credit reporting companies so the loan helps you build your credit history.

  1. Become an Authorized User on Someone Else's Credit Card

Another option is to piggyback off an already-open account as an authorized user instead of getting a cosigner. A parent, spouse, other family member or even a close friend can add you to their credit card account with a separate card. You will build a credit history based on the usage of that card, but the primary cardholder will be the one who must pay off any charges. If you're going with this method, be sure to establish rules with the primary cardholder regarding how you will use the card.

If you're not sure if you have a credit score, or want to find out what's in your credit history, consider getting a free copy of your credit report and scores from Experian so you can see exactly what is listed in your file. Checking your credit is a great first step to figuring out how to improve it, so the sooner you check the closer you'll be to raising your score over time.

Источник: https://www.experian.com/blogs/ask-experian/why-dont-i-have-a-credit-score/

Compact disc

Digital optical disc data storage format

Several terms redirect here. For other uses, see CD (disambiguation) and CDS (disambiguation).

Compact Disc wordmark.svg
OD Compact disc.svg

The readable surface of a compact disc includes a spiral track wound tightly enough to cause light to diffract into a full visible spectrum.

Media typeOptical disc
EncodingVarious
CapacityTypically up to 700 MB (up to 80 minutes' audio)
Read mechanism780 nm wavelength (infrared and red edge) semiconductor laser (early players used helium–neon lasers),[1] 1,200 Kbit/s (1×)
Write mechanism780 nm wavelength (infrared and red edge) semiconductor laser in recordable formats CD-R and CD-RW, pressed mold (stamper) in read only formats
StandardRainbow Books
Developed byPhilips, Sony
UsageAudio and data storage
Extended toCD-RW
DVD
Super Audio CD
ReleasedOctober 1982; 39 years ago (1982-10) (Japan)
March 1983; 38 years ago (1983-03) (Europe and North America)

The compact disc (CD) is a digitaloptical discdata storage format that was co-developed by Philips and Sony to store and play digital audio recordings. In August 1982, the first compact disc was manufactured. It was then released in October 1982 and branded as Digital Audio Compact Disc.

The format was later adapted for storage of data (CD-ROM). Several other formats were further derived from these, including write-once audio and data storage (CD-R), rewritable media (CD-RW), Video CD (VCD), Super Video CD (SVCD), Photo CD, Picture CD, Compact Disc-Interactive (CD-i) and Enhanced Music CD.

Standard CDs have a diameter of 120 millimetres (4.7 in) and are designed to hold up to 74 minutes of uncompressed stereo digital audio or about 650 MB of data. Capacity is routinely extended to 80 minutes and 700 MB by arranging more data closely on the same sized disc. The Mini CD has various diameters ranging from 60 to 80 millimetres (2.4 to 3.1 in); they are sometimes used for CD singles, storing up to 24 minutes of audio, or delivering device drivers.

At the time of the technology's introduction in 1982, a CD could store much more data than a personal computerhard disk drive, which would typically hold 10 MB. By 2010, hard drives commonly offered as much storage space as a thousand CDs, while their prices had plummeted to commodity level. In 2004, worldwide sales of audio CDs, CD-ROMs, and CD-Rs reached about 30 billion discs. By 2007, 200 billion CDs had been sold worldwide.[2]

Physical details[edit]

See also: Shaped compact disc

Diagram of CD layers
  1. A polycarbonate disc layer has the data encoded by using bumps.
  2. A shiny layer reflects the laser.
  3. A layer of lacquer protects the shiny layer.
  4. Artwork is screen printed on the top of the disc.
  5. A laser beam reads the CD and is reflected to a sensor, which converts it into electronic data

A CD is made from 1.2-millimetre (0.047 in) thick, polycarbonate plastic and weighs 14–33 grams.[3] From the center outward, components are: the center spindle hole (15 mm), the first-transition area (clamping ring), the clamping area (stacking ring), the second-transition area (mirror band), the program (data) area, and the rim. The inner program area occupies a radius from 25 to 58 mm.

A thin layer of aluminum or, more rarely, gold is applied to the surface, making it reflective. The metal is protected by a film of lacquer normally spin coated directly on the reflective layer. The label is printed on the lacquer layer, usually by screen printing or offset printing.

CD data is represented as tiny indentations known as pits, encoded in a spiral track moulded into the top of the polycarbonate layer. The areas between pits are known as lands. Each pit is approximately 100 nm deep by 500 nm wide, and varies from 850 nm to 3.5 µm in length.[4] The distance between the tracks (the pitch) is 1.6 µm.[5][6][7]

When playing an audio CD, a motor within the CD player spins the disc to a scanning velocity of 1.2–1.4 m/s (constant linear velocity, CLV)—equivalent to approximately 500 RPM at the inside of the disc, and approximately 200 RPM at the outside edge. The track on the CD begins at the inside and spirals outward so a disc played from beginning to end slows its rotation rate during playback.

Comparison of various optical storage media

The program area is 86.05 cm2 and the length of the recordable spiral is 86.05 cm2 / 1.6 µm =5.38 km. With a scanning speed of 1.2 m/s, the playing time is 74 minutes, or 650 MB of data on a CD-ROM. A disc with data packed slightly more densely is tolerated by most players (though some old ones fail). Using a linear velocity of 1.2 m/s and a narrower track pitch of 1.5 µm increases the playing time to 80 minutes, and data capacity to 700 MB.

This is a photomicrograph of the pits at the inner edge of a CD-ROM; 2-second exposure under visible fluorescent light.
The pits in a CD are 500 nmwide, between 830 nm and 3,000 nm long and 150 nm deep.

A CD is read by focusing a 780 nm wavelength (near infrared) semiconductor laser through the bottom of the polycarbonate layer. The change in height between pits and lands results in a difference in the way the light is reflected. Because the pits are indented into the top layer of the disc and are read through the transparent polycarbonate base, the pits form bumps when read.[8] The laser hits the disc, casting a circle of light wider than the modulated spiral track reflecting partially from the lands and partially from the top of any bumps where they are present. As the laser passes over a pit (bump), its height means that the part of the light reflected from its peak is 1/2 wavelength out of phase with the light reflected from the land around it. This causes partial cancellation of the laser's reflection from the surface. By measuring the reflected intensity change with a photodiode, a modulated signal is read back from the disc.

To accommodate the spiral pattern of data, the laser is placed on a mobile mechanism within the disc tray of any CD player. This mechanism typically takes the form of a sled that moves along a rail. The sled can be driven by a worm gear or linear motor. Where a worm gear is used, a second shorter-throw linear motor, in the form of a coil and magnet, makes fine position adjustments to track eccentricities in the disk at high speed. Some CD drives (particularly those manufactured by Philips during the 1980s and early 1990s) use a swing arm similar to that seen on a gramophone. This mechanism allows the laser to read information from the center to the edge of a disc without having to interrupt the spinning of the disc itself.[further explanation needed]

The pits and lands do not directly represent the 0's and 1's of binary data. Instead, non-return-to-zero, inverted encoding is used: a change from either pit to land or land to pit indicates a 1, while no change indicates a series of 0's. There must be at least 2, and no more than 10 0's between each 1, which is defined by the length of the pit. This, in turn, is decoded by reversing the eight-to-fourteen modulation used in mastering the disc, and then reversing the cross-interleaved Reed–Solomon coding, finally revealing the raw data stored on the disc. These encoding techniques (defined in the Red Book) were originally designed for CD Digital Audio, but they later became a standard for almost all CD formats (such as CD-ROM).

Integrity[edit]

CDs are susceptible to damage during handling and from environmental exposure. Pits are much closer to the label side of a disc, enabling defects and contaminants on the clear side to be out of focus during playback. Consequently, CDs are more likely to suffer damage on the label side of the disc. Scratches on the clear side can be repaired by refilling them with similar refractive plastic or by careful polishing. The edges of CDs are sometimes incompletely sealed, allowing gases and liquids to enter the CD and corrode the metal reflective layer and/or interfere with the focus of the laser on the pits, a condition known as disc rot.[9] The fungus Geotrichum candidum has been found—under conditions of high heat and humidity—to consume the polycarbonate plastic and aluminium found in CDs.[10][11]

The data integrity of compact discs can be measured using surface error scanning, which is able to measure the rates of different types of data errors, known as C1, C2, CU and extended (finer-grain) error measurements known as E11, E12, E21, E22, E31 and E32, of which higher rates indicate a possibly damaged or unclean data surface, low media quality, deteriorating media and recordable media written to by a malfunctioning CD writer.

Error scanning can reliably predict data losses caused by media deteriorating. Support of error scanning varies among vendors and models of optical disc drives, and extended error scanning (known as "advanced error scanning" in Nero DiscSpeed) has only been available on Plextor and some BenQ optical drives so far, as of 2020.[12][13]

Disc shapes and diameters[edit]

Comparison of several forms of disk storage showing tracks (not-to-scale); green denotes start and red denotes end.
* Some CD-R(W) and DVD-R(W)/DVD+R(W) recorders operate in ZCLV, CAA or CAV modes.

The digital data on a CD begins at the center of the disc and proceeds toward the edge, which allows adaptation to the different size formats available. Standard CDs are available in two sizes. By far, the most common is 120 millimetres (4.7 in) in diameter, with a 74- or 80-minute audio capacity and a 650 or 700 MB (737,280,000-byte) data capacity. Discs are 1.2 millimetres (0.047 in) thick, with a 15 millimetres (0.59 in) center hole. The official Philips history says this capacity was specified by Sony executive Norio Ohga to be able to contain the entirety of Beethoven's Ninth Symphony on one disc.[14]

This is a myth according to Kees Immink, as the EFM code format had not yet been decided in December 1979, when the decision to adopt the 120 mm was made. The adoption of EFM in June 1980 allowed 30 percent more playing time that would have resulted in 97 minutes for 120 mm diameter or 74 minutes for a disc as small as 100 millimetres (3.9 in). Instead, however, the information density was lowered by 30 percent to keep the playing time at 74 minutes.[15][16][17] The 120 mm diameter has been adopted by subsequent formats, including Super Audio CD, DVD, HD DVD, and Blu-ray Disc. The 80-millimetre (3.1 in) diameter discs ("Mini CDs") can hold up to 24 minutes of music or 210 MB.

Physical size Audio capacity CD-ROM data capacity Definition
120 mm74–80 min650–700 MBStandard size
80 mm21–24 min185–210 MBMini-CD size
80×54 mm – 80×64 mm~6 min10–65 MB"Business card" size

Logical format[edit]

Audio CD[edit]

Main article: Compact Disc Digital Audio

The logical format of an audio CD (officially Compact Disc Digital Audio or CD-DA) is described in a document produced in 1980 by the format's joint creators, Sony and Philips.[18] The document is known colloquially as the Red BookCD-DA after the color of its cover. The format is a two-channel 16-bit PCM encoding at a 44.1 kHzsampling rate per channel. Four-channel sound was to be an allowable option within the Red Book format, but has never been implemented. Monaural audio has no existing standard on a Red Book CD; thus, the mono source material is usually presented as two identical channels in a standard Red Book stereo track (i.e., mirrored mono); an MP3 CD, however, can have audio file formats with mono sound.

CD-Text is an extension of the Red Book specification for an audio CD that allows for the storage of additional text information (e.g., album name, song name, artist) on a standards-compliant audio CD. The information is stored either in the lead-in area of the CD, where there are roughly five kilobytes of space available, or in the subcode channels R to W on the disc, which can store about 31 megabytes.

Compact Disc + Graphics is a special audio compact disc that contains graphics data in addition to the audio data on the disc. The disc can be played on a regular audio CD player, but when played on a special CD+G player, it can output a graphics signal (typically, the CD+G player is hooked up to a television set or a computer monitor); these graphics are almost exclusively used to display lyrics on a television set for karaoke performers to sing along with. The CD+G format takes advantage of the channels R through W. These six bits store the graphics information.

CD + Extended Graphics (CD+EG, also known as CD+XG) is an improved variant of the Compact Disc + Graphics (CD+G) format. Like CD+G, CD+EG uses basic CD-ROM features to display text and video information in addition to the music being played. This extra data is stored in subcode channels R-W. Very few, if any, CD+EG discs have been published.

Super Audio CD[edit]

Main article: Super Audio CD

Super Audio CD (SACD) is a high-resolution read-only opticalaudio disc format that was designed to provide higher-fidelity digital audio reproduction than the Red Book. Introduced in 1999, it was developed by Sony and Philips, the same companies that created the Red Book. SACD was in a format war with DVD-Audio, but neither has replaced audio CDs. The SACD standard is referred to as the Scarlet Book standard.

Titles in the SACD format can be issued as hybrid discs; these discs contain the SACD audio stream as well as a standard audio CD layer which is playable in standard CD players, thus making them backward compatible.

CD-MIDI[edit]

CD-MIDI is a format used to store music-performance data, which upon playback is performed by electronic instruments that synthesize the audio. Hence, unlike the original Red Book CD-DA, these recordings are not digitally sampled audio recordings. The CD-MIDI format is defined as an extension of the original Red Book.

CD-ROM[edit]

Main article: CD-ROM

For the first few years of its existence, the CD was a medium used purely for audio. However, in 1988, the Yellow BookCD-ROM standard was established by Sony and Philips, which defined a non-volatile optical data computer data storage medium using the same physical format as audio compact discs, readable by a computer with a CD-ROM drive.

Video CD[edit]

Main article: Video CD

Video CD (VCD, View CD, and Compact Disc digital video) is a standard digital format for storing video media on a CD. VCDs are playable in dedicated VCD players, most modern DVD-Video players, personal computers, and some video game consoles. The VCD standard was created in 1993 by Sony, Philips, Matsushita, and JVC and is referred to as the White Book standard.

Overall picture quality is intended to be comparable to VHS video. Poorly compressed VCD video can sometimes be of lower quality than VHS video, but VCD exhibits block artifacts rather than analog noise and does not deteriorate further with each use. 352×240 (or SIF) resolution was chosen because it is half the vertical and half the horizontal resolution of the NTSC video. 352×288 is similarly one-quarter PAL/SECAM resolution. This approximates the (overall) resolution of an analog VHS tape, which, although it has double the number of (vertical) scan lines, has a much lower horizontal resolution.

Super Video CD[edit]

Main article: Super Video CD

Super Video CD (Super Video Compact Disc or SVCD) is a format used for storing video media on standard compact discs. SVCD was intended as a successor to VCD and an alternative to DVD-Video and falls somewhere between both in terms of technical capability and picture quality.

SVCD has two-thirds the resolution of DVD, and over 2.7 times the resolution of VCD. One CD-R disc can hold up to 60 minutes of standard-quality SVCD-format video. While no specific limit on SVCD video length is mandated by the specification, one must lower the video bit rate, and therefore quality, to accommodate very long videos. It is usually difficult to fit much more than 100 minutes of video onto one SVCD without incurring a significant quality loss, and many hardware players are unable to play video with an instantaneous bit rate lower than 300 to 600 kilobits per second.

Photo CD[edit]

Main article: Photo CD

Photo CD is a system designed by Kodak for digitizing and storing photos on a CD. Launched in 1992, the discs were designed to hold nearly 100 high-quality images, scanned prints, and slides using special proprietary encoding. Photo CDs are defined in the Beige Book and conform to the CD-ROM XA and CD-i Bridge specifications as well. They are intended to play on CD-i players, Photo CD players, and any computer with suitable software (irrespective of operating system). The images can also be printed out on photographic paper with a special Kodak machine. This format is not to be confused with Kodak Picture CD, which is a consumer product in CD-ROM format.

CD-i[edit]

Main article: Philips CD-i

The Philips Green Book specifies a standard for interactive multimedia compact discs designed for CD-i players (1993). CD-i discs can contain audio tracks that can be played on regular CD players, but CD-i discs are not compatible with most CD-ROM drives and software. The CD-i Ready specification was later created to improve compatibility with audio CD players, and the CD-i Bridge specification was added to create CD-i compatible discs that can be accessed by regular CD-ROM drives.

CD-i Ready[edit]

Main article: CD-i Ready

Philips defined a format similar to CD-i called CD-i Ready, which puts CD-i software and data into the pregap of track 1. This format was supposed to be more compatible with older audio CD players.

Enhanced Music CD (CD+)[edit]

Main article: Blue Book (CD standard)

Enhanced Music CD, also known as CD Extra or CD Plus, is a format which combines audio tracks and data tracks on the same disc by putting audio tracks in a first session and data in a second session. It was developed by Philips and Sony, and it is defined in the Blue Book.

VinylDisc[edit]

Main article: VinylDisc

VinylDisc is the hybrid of a standard audio CD and the vinyl record. The vinyl layer on the disc's label side can hold approximately three minutes of music.

Manufacture[edit]

Main article: Compact Disc manufacturing

Individual pits are visible on the micrometer scale.

In 1995, material costs were 30 cents for the jewel case and 10 to 15 cents for the CD. Wholesale cost of CDs was $0.75 to $1.15, while the typical retail price of a prerecorded music CD was $16.98.[19] On average, the store received 35 percent of the retail price, the record company 27 percent, the artist 16 percent, the manufacturer 13 percent, and the distributor 9 percent.[19] When 8-track cartridges, compact cassettes, and CDs were introduced, each was marketed at a higher price than the format they succeeded, even though the cost to produce the media was reduced. This was done because the apparent value increased. This continued from phonograph records to CDs, but was broken when Apple marketed MP3s for $0.99, and albums for $9.99. The incremental cost, though, to produce an MP3 is negligible.[20]

Writable compact discs[edit]

Recordable CD[edit]

Main article: CD-R

Recordable Compact Discs, CD-Rs, are injection-molded with a "blank" data spiral. A photosensitive dye is then applied, after which the discs are metalized and lacquer-coated. The write laser of the CD recorder changes the color of the dye to allow the read laser of a standard CD player to see the data, just as it would with a standard stamped disc. The resulting discs can be read by most CD-ROM drives and played in most audio CD players. CD-Rs follow the Orange Book standard.

CD-R recordings are designed to be permanent. Over time, the dye's physical characteristics may change causing read errors and data loss until the reading device cannot recover with error correction methods. Errors can be predicted using surface error scanning. The design life is from 20 to 100 years, depending on the quality of the discs, the quality of the writing drive, and storage conditions.[21] However, testing has demonstrated such degradation of some discs in as little as 18 months under normal storage conditions.[22][23] This failure is known as disc rot, for which there are several, mostly environmental, reasons.[24]

The recordable audio CD is designed to be used in a consumer audio CD recorder. These consumer audio CD recorders use SCMS (Serial Copy Management System), an early form of digital rights management (DRM), to conform to the AHRA (Audio Home Recording Act). The Recordable Audio CD is typically somewhat more expensive than CD-R due to lower production volume and a 3 percent AHRA royalty used to compensate the music industry for the making of a copy.[25]

High-capacity recordable CD is a higher-density recording format that can hold 20% more data than of conventional discs.[26] The higher capacity is incompatible with some recorders and recording software.[27]

ReWritable CD[edit]

Main article: CD-RW

CD-RW is a re-recordable medium that uses a metallic alloy instead of a dye. The write laser, in this case, is used to heat and alter the properties (amorphous vs. crystalline) of the alloy, and hence change its reflectivity. A CD-RW does not have as great a difference in reflectivity as a pressed CD or a CD-R, and so many earlier CD audio players cannot read CD-RW discs, although most later CD audio players and stand-alone DVD players can. CD-RWs follow the Orange Book standard.

The ReWritable Audio CD is designed to be used in a consumer audio CD recorder, which will not (without modification) accept standard CD-RW discs. These consumer audio CD recorders use the Serial Copy Management System (SCMS), an early form of digital rights management (DRM), to conform to the United States' Audio Home Recording Act (AHRA). The ReWritable Audio CD is typically somewhat more expensive than CD-R due to (a) lower volume and (b) a 3 percent AHRA royalty used to compensate the music industry for the making of a copy.[25]

Copy protection[edit]

Main article: Compact Disc and DVD copy protection

See also: Sony BMG copy protection rootkit scandal

The Red Book audio specification, except for a simple "anti-copy" statement in the subcode, does not include any copy protection mechanism. Known at least as early as 2001,[28] attempts were made by record companies to market "copy-protected" non-standard compact discs, which cannot be ripped, or copied, to hard drives or easily converted to other formats (like FLAC, MP3 or Vorbis). One major drawback to these copy-protected discs is that most will not play on either computer CD-ROM drives or some standalone CD players that use CD-ROM mechanisms. Philips has stated that such discs are not permitted to bear the trademarked Compact Disc Digital Audio logo because they violate the Red Book specifications. Numerous copy-protection systems have been countered by readily available, often free, software, or even by simply turning off automatic AutoPlay to prevent the running of the DRM executable program.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^Träger, Frank (5 May 2012). Springer Handbook of Lasers and Optics. ISBN .
  2. ^"Compact Disc Hits 25th birthday". BBC News. 17 August 2007. Archived from the original on 18 February 2010. Retrieved 1 December 2009.
  3. ^Pohlmann, Ken C. (1989). The Compact Disc: A Handbook of Theory and Use. A-R Editions, Inc. ISBN .
  4. ^"Compact Disc". Archived from the original on 12 May 2016. Retrieved 6 May 2016.
  5. ^Sharpless, Graham (July 2003). "Introduction to CD and CD-ROM"(PDF). Deluxe Global Media Services Ltd. Archived(PDF) from the original on 9 March 2016. Retrieved 3 May 2016.
  6. ^"IEC 60908 Audio recording - Compact disc digital audio system". Archived from the original on 6 May 2016.
  7. ^"ISO/IEC 10149 Information technology -- Data interchange on read-only 120 mm optical data disks (CD-ROM)". Archived from the original on 6 May 2016.
  8. ^An Introduction to Digital Audio, John Watkinson, 1994
  9. ^Council on Library and Information Resources: Conditions that Affect CDs and DVDsArchived 15 September 2016 at the Wayback Machine
  10. ^Bosch, Xavier (2001). "Fungus eats CD". Nature. doi:10.1038/news010628-11. Archived from the original on 12 December 2013.
  11. ^"Fungus 'eats' CDs". BBC. June 2001. Archived from the original on 12 December 2013.
  12. ^"Philips DVD-R 8x (InfodiscR20) - Philips - Gleitz" (in German). 18 November 2006.
  13. ^"QPxTool glossary". qpxtool.sourceforge.io. QPxTool. 1 August 2008. Retrieved 22 July 2020.
  14. ^"Sony chairman credited with developing CDs dies", Fox News, 24 April 2011, archived from the original on 21 May 2013, retrieved 14 October 2012
  15. ^K.A. Schouhamer Immink (2018). "How we made the compact disc". Nature Electronics. 1. Retrieved 16 April 2018.
  16. ^K. Schouhamer Immink (2007). "Shannon, Beethoven, and the Compact Disc". IEEE Information Theory Society Newsletter. 57: 42–46. Retrieved 6 February 2018.
  17. ^Tim Buthe and Walter Mattli, The New Global Rulers: The Privatization of Regulation in the World Economy, Princeton University Press, Feb. 2011.
  18. ^"IEC 60908:1999

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    IEC Webstore". webstore.iec.ch. Archived from the original on 6 May 2016. Retrieved 9 July 2020.
  19. ^ abNeil Strauss (5 July 1995). "Pennies That Add Up to $16.98: Why CD's Cost So Much – New York Times". Nytimes.com. Archived from the original on 11 August 2013. Retrieved 25 July 2013.
  20. ^Amy HarmonPublished: 12 October 2003 (12 October 2003). "MUSIC; What Price Music?". Nytimes.com. Archived from the original on 12 May 2013. Retrieved 25 July 2013.
  21. ^"Cost Per Gigabyte of Popular Data Storage - Infographic". Blank Media Printing. Archived from the original on 17 April 2016. Retrieved 1 January 2016.
  22. ^"CD-R Unreadable in Less Than Two Years". cdfreaks.com. Archived from the original on 14 February 2007. Retrieved 1 February 2007.
  23. ^"CD-R ROT". Archived from the original on 4 February 2005. Retrieved 1 February 2007.
  24. ^"5. Conditions That Affect CDs and DVDs — Council on Library and Information Resources". www.clir.org. Archived from the original on 15 September 2016. Retrieved 5 July 2016.
  25. ^ abAndy McFadden (8 August 2007). "CD-Recordable FAQ". Archived from the original on 20 September 2007. Retrieved 20 September 2007.
  26. ^"Understanding CD-R & CD-RW". Osta.org. Archived from the original on 1 August 2013. Retrieved 25 July 2013.
  27. ^"CD-Recordable FAQ – Section 3". 9 January 2010. Archived from the original on 18 November 2013. Retrieved 25 November 2013.
  28. ^Campaign For Digital Rights (5 December 2001). "Copy Protected CDs (via Archive.org)". Archived from the original on 5 December 2001.

Further reading[edit]

  • Ecma International. Standard ECMA-130: Data Interchange on Read-only 120 mm Optical Data Disks (CD-ROM), 2nd edition (June 1996).
  • Pohlmann, Kenneth C. (1992). The Compact Disc Handbook. Middleton, Wisconsin: A-R Editions. ISBN 0-89579-300-8.
  • Peek, Hans et al. (2009) Origins and Successors of the Compact Disc. Springer Science+Business Media B.V. ISBN 978-1-4020-9552-8.
  • Peek, Hans B., The emergence of the compact disc, IEEE Communications Magazine, Jan. 2010, pp. 10–17.
  • Nakajima, Heitaro; Ogawa, Hiroshi (1992) Compact Disc Technology, Tokyo, Ohmsha Ltd. ISBN 4-274-03347-3.
  • Barry, Robert (2020). Compact Disc (Object Lessons). New York: Bloomsbury. ISBN 978-1-5013-4851-8.

External links[edit]

Источник: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Compact_disc

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America’s Best Rates 2021

Learn how to get the best interest rates for your money by finding the best CD rates, best money market rates and best savings account rates.

Our articles, research studies, tools, and reviews maintain strict editorial integrity; however, we may be compensated when you click on or are approved for offers from our partners.

As if last year wasn’t tough enough on Americans’ finances, 2021 has posed a new threat to consumer savings accounts and other bank deposits: inflation.

While a shaky COVID-19 economy meant that both savings account rates and inflation fell in 2020, the two have gone in opposite directions so far this year. Savings account rates have continued to fall, while the inflation rate has risen.

The chart below tells the story:

As of the fall of 2021, inflation had soared to a 30-year high, while savings account rates had fallen to their lowest level in the history of the America’s Best Rates survey, which dates back to mid-2012.

The trend is similar for other types of deposit accounts, like money market accounts and one- and five-year CDs. This means that the hard-earned savings of American consumers could end up losing ground to inflation.

The best way to fight back is by not accepting typical savings, money market, or CD rates. A new study from MoneyRates.com found a huge difference between average bank rates and those offered by the top banks.

Learn more about the most recent trends in bank rates and learn where you can find the top rates that can help you soften the blow of inflation.

America’s Best Savings Account Rates

As of mid-third quarter 2021, these were the top savings account rates in the America’s Best Rates Survey. Instead of the usual top ten, twelve accounts are shown because there was a five-way tie for eighth place:

Average savings account rate: 0.104%

Savings account rates have been falling steadily since peaking in the first quarter of 2019. The average savings account rate is now just 0.104%.

However, not all savings account rates fall at the same speed or to the same degree. As the above table shows, consumers have several opportunities to do significantly better. Some of the top savings account rates are 0.50% or better.

Especially with savings account rates falling to near zero and inflation on the rise, it really pays to shop around.

Average online savings account rate: 0.319%

When you shop for savings account rates, you’ll improve your chances of doing better if you shop online.

The average online savings account rate of 0.319% is more than nine times the average rate of 0.034% for traditional, branch-based accounts.

Significantly, every one of the top savings account rates in the above table is from an online account.

America’s Best Money Market Rates

As of the middle of the third quarter, the following were the ten best money market rates identified by the America’s Best Rates survey:

Average money market rate: 0.087%

Two years ago, money market rates were a little higher than savings account rates. Since then, they’ve fallen even more quickly and are now lower. This makes them even more vulnerable to inflation.

As with savings account rates, there is a big difference between the best money market rates and the average. The table above shows where you can find some of the best money market rates.

Average online money market rate: 0.235%

Online money market rates offer a significant advantage over rates from traditional, branch-based accounts. The average online money market rate of 0.235% is exactly five times the average traditional money market account rate of 0.047%.

The Best 1-Year CD Rates

As of the middle of the third quarter, the following were the top 10 one-year CD rates in the America’s Best Rates survey:

Average one-year CD rate: 0.183%

CDs typically offer a dual advantage over savings and money market accounts:

  • They can allow you to lock in a rate for a specified period, which can protect you against falling rates.
  • In exchange for a longer commitment of your money, CD rates are usually higher than savings or money market rates.

It’s no surprise that the average discover cd rate history CD rate is higher than the average savings and money market rate. While the top one-year CD rates are similar to the top savings account rates, CDs let you lock in a rate for a full year while savings account rates are subject to change at any time.

The ability to lock in a rate is a reason why shopping around is especially valuable when it comes to choosing a CD. There is a significant difference between the top CD rates and the average, and that advantage can be locked in for the full term of the CD.

Average online one-year CD rate: 0.337%

Online accounts generally offer a rate advantage over traditional, branch-based CDs. Plus, there’s another reason to consider an online CD.

CDs involve committing money for a specified period, so there isn’t normally any interaction with the account during the term of the CD. This means there’s no reason to visit a bank branch during the CD’s term, so why not get a better rate by banking online?

With an average online 1-year CD rate of 0.337% compared to an average rate of 0.134% for one-year CDs in traditional accounts, online CDs offer an opportunity to earn more.

The Best 5-Year CD Rates

The following were the 10 best 5-year CD rates as of the middle of the third quarter:

Average five-year CD rate: 0.341%

In exchange for the longer commitment required, five-year CDs offer a rate advantage over savings accounts, money market accounts, and shorter-term CDs.

However, this rate advantage has gotten smaller over the past couple years as rates generally have fallen. In a falling rate environment, banks try to avoid locking discover cd rate history into a rate that might be higher than the market if rates continue to fall.

Even so, you can still get a rate advantage with a longer-term CD. This is especially true if you shop for one of the best five-year CD rates. As shown in the table above, the best rates are more than twice the average rate.

Average online five-year CD rate: 0.504%

The average five-year CD rate for an online account of 0.504% is significantly better than the average five-year CD rate for a branch-based account, which is 0.290%.

Again, given the lack of interaction customers typically have with their accounts during the term of the CD, it can be particularly worthwhile to get a higher rate by banking online.

America’s Best Rates: Identifying Consistently High Rates

The latest America’s Best Rates survey of savings, money market, and CD account rankings was based on publicly-posted rates as of mid-third quarter 2021. Rates available to customers with a $10,000 balance and no broader relationship with the bank are used for this survey.

To provide a representative view of banking trends, this analysis is based on the MoneyRates Index, a consistent sample of accounts reflecting a cross-section of the retail deposit industry. The MoneyRates Index is comprised of 50 of the largest retail deposit institutions in the United States, plus 25 smaller banks and 25 medium-sized banks.

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Richard Barrington has been a Senior Financial Analyst for MoneyRates.com since 2009. He has appeared on Fox Business News and NPR, and has been quoted by the Wall Street Journal, the New York Times, USA Today, CNBC and many other publications. Richard has over 30 years of experience in financial services. He has earned the Chartered Financial Analyst (CFA) designation from the Association of Investment Management and Research (now the “CFA Institute”).

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Compact disc

Digital optical disc data storage format

Several terms redirect here. For other uses, see CD (disambiguation) and CDS (disambiguation).

Compact Disc wordmark.svg
OD Compact disc.svg

The readable surface of a compact disc includes a spiral track wound tightly enough to cause light to diffract into a full visible spectrum.

Media typeOptical disc
EncodingVarious
CapacityTypically up to 700 MB (up to 80 minutes' audio)
Read mechanism780 nm wavelength (infrared and red edge) semiconductor laser (early players used helium–neon lasers),[1] 1,200 Kbit/s (1×)
Write mechanism780 nm wavelength (infrared and red edge) semiconductor laser in recordable formats CD-R and CD-RW, pressed mold (stamper) in read only formats
StandardRainbow Books
Developed byPhilips, Sony
UsageAudio and data storage
Extended toCD-RW
DVD
Super Audio CD
ReleasedOctober 1982; 39 years ago (1982-10) (Japan)
March 1983; 38 years ago (1983-03) (Europe and North America)

The compact disc (CD) is a digitaloptical discdata storage format that was co-developed by Philips and Sony to store and play digital audio recordings. In August 1982, the first compact disc was manufactured. It was then released in October 1982 and branded as Digital Audio Compact Disc.

The format was later adapted for storage of data (CD-ROM). Several other formats were further derived from these, including write-once audio and data storage (CD-R), rewritable media (CD-RW), Video CD (VCD), Super Video CD (SVCD), Photo CD, Picture CD, Compact Disc-Interactive (CD-i) and Enhanced Music CD.

Standard CDs have a diameter of 120 millimetres (4.7 in) and are designed to hold up to 74 minutes of uncompressed stereo digital audio or about 650 MB of data. Capacity is routinely extended to 80 minutes and 700 MB by arranging more data closely on the same sized disc. The Mini CD has various diameters ranging from 60 to 80 millimetres (2.4 to 3.1 in); they are sometimes used for CD singles, storing up to 24 minutes of audio, or delivering device drivers.

At the time of the technology's introduction in 1982, a CD could store much more data than a personal computerhard disk drive, which would typically hold 10 MB. By 2010, hard drives commonly offered as much storage space as a thousand CDs, while their prices had plummeted to commodity level. In 2004, worldwide sales of audio CDs, CD-ROMs, and CD-Rs reached about 30 billion discs. By 2007, 200 billion CDs had been sold worldwide.[2]

Physical details[edit]

See also: Shaped compact disc

Diagram of CD layers
  1. A polycarbonate disc layer has the data encoded by using bumps.
  2. A shiny layer reflects the laser.
  3. A layer of lacquer protects the shiny layer.
  4. Artwork is screen printed on the top of the disc.
  5. A laser beam reads the CD and is reflected to a sensor, which converts it into electronic data

A CD is made from 1.2-millimetre (0.047 in) thick, polycarbonate plastic and weighs 14–33 grams.[3] From the center outward, components are: the center spindle hole (15 mm), the first-transition area (clamping ring), the clamping area (stacking ring), the second-transition area (mirror band), the program (data) area, and the rim. The inner program area occupies a radius from 25 to 58 mm.

A thin layer of aluminum or, more rarely, gold is applied to the surface, making it reflective. The metal is protected by a film of lacquer normally spin coated directly on the reflective layer. The label is printed on the lacquer layer, usually by screen printing or offset printing.

CD data is represented as tiny indentations known as pits, encoded in a spiral track moulded into the top of the polycarbonate layer. The areas between pits are known as lands. Each pit is approximately 100 nm deep by 500 nm wide, and varies from 850 nm to 3.5 µm in length.[4] The distance between the tracks (the pitch) is 1.6 µm.[5][6][7]

When playing an audio CD, a motor within the CD player spins the disc to a scanning velocity of 1.2–1.4 m/s (constant linear velocity, CLV)—equivalent to approximately 500 RPM at the inside of the disc, and approximately 200 RPM at the outside edge. The track on the CD begins at the inside and spirals outward so a disc played from beginning to end slows its rotation rate during playback.

Comparison of various optical storage media

The program area is 86.05 cm2 and the length of the recordable spiral is 86.05 cm2 / 1.6 µm =5.38 km. With a scanning speed of 1.2 m/s, the playing time is 74 minutes, or 650 MB of data on a CD-ROM. A disc with data packed slightly more densely is tolerated by most players (though some old ones fail). Using a linear velocity of 1.2 m/s and a narrower track pitch of 1.5 µm increases the playing time to 80 minutes, and data capacity to 700 MB.

This is a photomicrograph of the pits at the inner edge of a CD-ROM; 2-second exposure under visible fluorescent light.
The pits in a CD are 500 nmwide, between 830 nm and 3,000 nm long and 150 nm deep.

A CD is read by focusing a 780 nm wavelength (near infrared) semiconductor laser through the bottom of the polycarbonate layer. The change in height between pits and lands results in a difference in the way the light is reflected. Because the pits are indented into the top layer of the disc and are read through the transparent polycarbonate base, the pits form bumps when read.[8] The laser hits the disc, casting a circle of light wider than the modulated spiral track reflecting partially from the lands and partially from the top of any bumps where they are present. As the laser passes over a pit (bump), its height means that the part of the light reflected from its peak is 1/2 wavelength out of phase with the light reflected from the land around it. This causes partial cancellation of the laser's reflection from the surface. By measuring the reflected intensity change with a photodiode, a modulated signal is read back from the disc.

To accommodate the spiral pattern of data, the laser is placed on a mobile mechanism within the disc tray of any CD player. This mechanism typically takes the form of a sled that moves along a rail. The sled can be driven by a worm gear or linear motor. Where a worm gear is used, a discover cd rate history shorter-throw linear motor, in the form of a coil and magnet, makes fine position adjustments to track eccentricities in the disk at high speed. Some CD drives (particularly those manufactured by Philips during the 1980s and early 1990s) use a swing arm similar to that seen on a gramophone. This mechanism allows the laser to read information from the center to the edge of a disc without having to interrupt the spinning of the disc itself.[further explanation needed]

The pits and lands do not directly represent the 0's and 1's of binary data. Instead, non-return-to-zero, inverted encoding is used: a change from either pit to land or land to pit indicates a 1, while no change indicates a series of 0's. There must be at least 2, and no more than 10 0's between each 1, which is defined by the length of the pit. This, in turn, is decoded by reversing the eight-to-fourteen modulation used in mastering the disc, and then reversing the cross-interleaved Reed–Solomon coding, finally revealing the raw data stored on the disc. These encoding techniques (defined in the Red Book) were originally designed for CD Digital Audio, but they later became a standard for almost all CD formats (such as CD-ROM).

Integrity[edit]

CDs are susceptible to damage during handling and from environmental exposure. Pits are much closer to the label side of a disc, enabling defects and contaminants on the clear side to be out of focus during playback. Consequently, CDs are more likely to suffer damage on the label side of the disc. Scratches on the clear side can be repaired by refilling them with similar refractive plastic or by careful polishing. The edges of CDs are sometimes incompletely sealed, allowing gases and liquids to enter the CD and corrode the metal reflective layer and/or interfere with the focus of the laser on the pits, a condition known as disc rot.[9] The fungus Geotrichum candidum has been found—under conditions of high heat and humidity—to consume the polycarbonate plastic and aluminium found in CDs.[10][11]

The data integrity of compact discs can be measured using surface error scanning, which is able to measure the rates of different types of data errors, known as C1, C2, CU and extended (finer-grain) error measurements known as E11, E12, E21, E22, E31 and E32, of which higher rates indicate a possibly damaged or unclean data surface, low media quality, deteriorating media and recordable media written to by a malfunctioning CD writer.

Error scanning can reliably predict data losses caused by media deteriorating. Support of error scanning varies among vendors and models of optical disc drives, and extended error scanning (known as "advanced error scanning" in Nero DiscSpeed) has only been available on Plextor and some BenQ optical drives so far, as of 2020.[12][13]

Disc shapes and diameters[edit]

Comparison of several forms of disk storage showing tracks (not-to-scale); green denotes start and red denotes end.
* Some CD-R(W) and DVD-R(W)/DVD+R(W) recorders operate in ZCLV, CAA or CAV modes.

The digital data on a CD begins at the center of the disc and proceeds toward the edge, which allows adaptation to the different size formats available. Standard CDs are available in two sizes. By far, the most common is 120 millimetres (4.7 in) in diameter, with a 74- or 80-minute audio capacity and a 650 or 700 MB (737,280,000-byte) data capacity. Discs are 1.2 millimetres (0.047 in) thick, with a 15 millimetres (0.59 in) center hole. The official Philips history says this capacity was specified by Sony executive Norio Ohga to be able to contain the entirety of Beethoven's Ninth Symphony on one disc.[14]

This is a myth according to Kees Immink, as the EFM code format had not yet been decided in December 1979, when the decision to adopt the 120 mm was made. The adoption of EFM in June 1980 allowed 30 percent more playing time that would have resulted in 97 minutes for 120 mm diameter or 74 minutes for a disc as small as 100 millimetres (3.9 in). Instead, however, the information density was lowered by 30 percent to keep the playing time at 74 minutes.[15][16][17] The 120 mm diameter has been adopted by subsequent formats, including Super Audio CD, DVD, HD DVD, and Blu-ray Disc. The 80-millimetre (3.1 in) diameter discs ("Mini CDs") can hold up to 24 minutes of music or 210 MB.

Physical size Audio capacity CD-ROM data capacity Definition
120 mm74–80 min650–700 MBStandard size
80 mm21–24 min185–210 MBMini-CD size
80×54 mm – 80×64 mm~6 min10–65 MB"Business card" size

Logical format[edit]

Audio CD[edit]

Main article: Compact Disc Digital Audio

The logical format of an audio CD (officially Compact Disc Digital Audio or CD-DA) is described in a document produced in 1980 by the format's joint creators, Sony and Philips.[18] The document is known colloquially as the Red BookCD-DA after the color of its cover. The format is a two-channel 16-bit PCM encoding at a 44.1 kHzsampling rate per channel. Four-channel sound was to be an allowable option within the Red Book format, but has never been implemented. Monaural audio has no existing standard on a Red Book CD; thus, the mono source material is usually presented as two identical channels in a standard Red Book stereo track (i.e., mirrored mono); an MP3 CD, however, can have audio file formats with mono sound.

CD-Text is an extension of the Red Book specification for an audio CD that allows for the storage of additional text information (e.g., album name, song name, artist) on a standards-compliant audio CD. The information is stored either in the lead-in area of the CD, where there are roughly five kilobytes of space available, or in the subcode channels R to W on the disc, which can store about 31 megabytes.

Compact Disc + Graphics is a special audio compact disc that contains graphics data in addition to the audio data on the disc. The disc can be played on a regular audio CD player, but when played on a special CD+G player, it can output a graphics signal (typically, the CD+G player is hooked up to a television set or a computer monitor); these graphics are almost exclusively used to display lyrics on a television set for karaoke performers to sing along with. The CD+G format takes advantage of the channels R through W. These six bits store the graphics information.

CD + Extended Graphics (CD+EG, also known as CD+XG) is an improved variant of the Compact Disc + Graphics (CD+G) format. Like CD+G, CD+EG uses basic CD-ROM features to display text and video information in addition to the music being played. This extra data is stored in subcode channels R-W. Very few, if any, CD+EG discs have been published.

Super Audio CD[edit]

Main article: Super Audio CD

Super Audio CD (SACD) is a high-resolution read-only opticalaudio disc format that was designed to provide higher-fidelity digital audio reproduction than discover cd rate history Red Book. Introduced in 1999, it was developed by Sony and Philips, the same companies that created the Red Book. SACD was in a format war with DVD-Audio, but neither has replaced audio CDs. The SACD standard is referred to as the Scarlet Book standard.

Titles in the SACD format can be issued as hybrid discs; these discs contain the SACD audio stream as well as a standard audio CD layer which is playable in standard CD players, thus making them backward compatible.

CD-MIDI[edit]

CD-MIDI is a format used to store music-performance data, which upon playback is performed by electronic instruments that synthesize the audio. Hence, unlike the original Red Book CD-DA, these recordings are not digitally sampled audio recordings. The CD-MIDI format is defined as an extension of the original Red Book.

CD-ROM[edit]

Main article: CD-ROM

For the first few years of its existence, the CD was a medium used purely for audio. However, in 1988, the Yellow BookCD-ROM standard was established by Sony and Philips, which defined a non-volatile optical data computer data storage medium using the same physical format as audio compact discs, readable by a computer with a CD-ROM drive.

Video CD[edit]

Main article: Video CD

Video CD (VCD, View CD, and Compact Disc digital video) is a standard digital format for storing video media on a CD. VCDs are playable in dedicated VCD players, most modern DVD-Video players, personal computers, and some video game consoles. The VCD standard was created in 1993 by Sony, Philips, Matsushita, and JVC and is referred to as the White Book standard.

Overall picture quality is intended to be comparable to VHS video. Poorly compressed VCD video can sometimes be of lower quality than VHS video, but VCD exhibits block artifacts rather than analog noise and does not deteriorate further with each use. 352×240 (or SIF) resolution was chosen because it is half the vertical and half the horizontal resolution of the NTSC video. 352×288 is similarly one-quarter PAL/SECAM resolution. This approximates the (overall) resolution of an analog VHS tape, which, although it has double the number of (vertical) scan lines, has a much lower horizontal resolution.

Super Video CD[edit]

Main article: Super Video CD

Super Video CD (Super Video Compact Disc or SVCD) is a format used for storing video media on standard compact discs. SVCD was intended as a successor to VCD and an alternative to DVD-Video and falls somewhere between both in terms of technical capability and picture quality.

SVCD has two-thirds the resolution of DVD, and over 2.7 times the resolution of VCD. One CD-R disc can hold up to 60 minutes of standard-quality SVCD-format video. While no specific limit on SVCD video length is mandated by the specification, one must lower the video bit rate, and therefore quality, to accommodate very long videos. It is usually difficult to fit much more than 100 minutes of video onto one SVCD without incurring a significant quality loss, and many hardware players are unable to play video with an instantaneous bit rate lower than 300 to 600 kilobits per second.

Photo CD[edit]

Main article: Photo CD

Photo CD is a system designed by Kodak for digitizing and storing photos on a CD. Launched in 1992, the discs were designed to hold nearly 100 high-quality images, scanned prints, and slides using special proprietary encoding. Photo CDs are defined in the Beige Book and conform to the CD-ROM XA and CD-i Bridge specifications as well. They are intended to play on CD-i players, Photo CD players, and any computer with suitable software (irrespective of operating system). The images can also be printed out on photographic paper with a special Kodak machine. This format is not to be confused with Kodak Picture CD, which is a consumer product in CD-ROM format.

CD-i[edit]

Main article: Philips CD-i

The Philips Green Book specifies a standard for interactive multimedia compact discs designed for CD-i players (1993). CD-i discs can contain audio tracks that can be played on regular Bank holiday fun fair near me players, but CD-i discs are not compatible with most CD-ROM drives and software. The CD-i Ready specification was later created to improve compatibility with audio CD players, and the CD-i Bridge specification was added to create CD-i compatible discs that can be accessed by regular CD-ROM drives.

CD-i Ready[edit]

Main article: CD-i Ready

Philips defined a format similar to CD-i called CD-i Ready, which puts CD-i software and data into the pregap of track 1. This format was supposed to be more compatible with older audio CD players.

Enhanced Music CD (CD+)[edit]

Main article: Blue Book (CD standard)

Enhanced Music CD, also known as CD Extra or CD Plus, is a format which combines audio tracks and data tracks on the same disc by putting audio tracks in a first session and data in a second session. It was developed by Philips and Sony, and it is defined in the Blue Book.

VinylDisc[edit]

Main article: VinylDisc

VinylDisc is the hybrid of a standard audio CD and the vinyl record. The vinyl layer on the disc's label side can hold approximately three minutes of music.

Manufacture[edit]

Main article: Compact Disc manufacturing

Individual pits are visible on the micrometer scale.

In 1995, material costs were 30 cents for the jewel case and 10 to 15 cents for the CD. Wholesale cost of CDs was $0.75 to $1.15, while the typical retail price of a prerecorded music CD was $16.98.[19] On average, the store received 35 percent of the retail price, the record company 27 percent, the artist 16 percent, the manufacturer 13 percent, and the distributor 9 percent.[19] When 8-track cartridges, compact cassettes, and CDs were introduced, each was marketed at a higher price than the format they succeeded, even though the cost to produce the media was reduced. This was done because the apparent value increased. This continued from phonograph records to CDs, but was broken when Apple marketed MP3s for $0.99, and albums for $9.99. The incremental cost, though, to produce an MP3 is negligible.[20]

Writable compact discs[edit]

Recordable CD[edit]

Main article: CD-R

Recordable Compact Discs, CD-Rs, are injection-molded with a "blank" data spiral. A photosensitive dye is then applied, after which the discs are metalized and lacquer-coated. The write laser of the CD recorder changes the color of the dye to allow the read laser of a standard CD player to see the data, just as it would with a standard stamped disc. The resulting discs can be read by most CD-ROM drives and played in most audio CD players. CD-Rs follow the Orange Book standard.

CD-R recordings are designed to be permanent. Over time, the dye's physical characteristics may change causing read errors and data loss until the reading device cannot recover with error correction methods. Errors can be predicted using surface error scanning. The design life is from 20 to 100 years, depending on the quality of the discs, the quality of the writing drive, and storage conditions.[21] However, testing has demonstrated such degradation of some discs in as little as 18 months under normal storage conditions.[22][23] This failure is known as disc rot, for which there are several, mostly environmental, reasons.[24]

The recordable audio CD is designed to be used in a consumer audio CD recorder. These consumer audio CD recorders use SCMS (Serial Copy Management System), an early form of digital rights management (DRM), to conform to the AHRA (Audio Home Recording Act). The Recordable Audio CD is typically somewhat more expensive than CD-R due to lower production volume and a 3 percent AHRA royalty used to compensate the music industry for the making of a copy.[25]

High-capacity recordable CD is a higher-density recording format that can hold 20% more data than of conventional discs.[26] The higher capacity is incompatible with some recorders and recording software.[27]

ReWritable CD[edit]

Main article: CD-RW

CD-RW is a re-recordable medium that uses a metallic alloy instead of a dye. The write laser, in this case, is used to heat and alter the properties (amorphous vs. crystalline) of the alloy, and hence change its reflectivity. A CD-RW does not have as great a difference in reflectivity as a pressed CD or a CD-R, and so many earlier CD audio players cannot read CD-RW discs, although most later CD audio players and stand-alone DVD players can. CD-RWs follow the Orange Book standard.

The ReWritable Audio CD is designed to be used in a consumer audio CD recorder, which will not (without modification) accept standard CD-RW discs. These consumer audio CD recorders use the Serial Copy Management System (SCMS), an early form of digital rights management (DRM), to conform to the United States' Audio Home Recording Act (AHRA). The ReWritable Audio CD is typically somewhat more expensive than CD-R due to (a) lower volume and (b) a 3 percent AHRA royalty used to compensate the music industry for the making of a copy.[25]

Copy protection[edit]

Main article: Compact Disc and DVD copy protection

See also: Sony BMG copy protection rootkit scandal

The Red Book audio specification, except for a simple "anti-copy" statement in the subcode, does not include any copy protection mechanism. Known at least as early as 2001,[28] attempts were made by record companies to market "copy-protected" non-standard compact discs, which cannot be ripped, or copied, to hard drives or easily converted to other formats (like FLAC, MP3 or Vorbis). One major drawback to these copy-protected discs is that most will not play on either computer CD-ROM drives or some standalone CD players that use CD-ROM mechanisms. Philips has stated that such discs are not permitted to bear the trademarked Compact Disc Digital Audio logo because they violate the Red Book specifications. Numerous copy-protection systems have been countered by readily available, often free, software, or even by simply turning off automatic AutoPlay to prevent the running of the DRM executable program.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^Träger, Frank (5 May 2012). Springer Handbook of Lasers and Optics. ISBN .
  2. ^"Compact Disc Hits 25th birthday". BBC News. 17 August 2007. Archived from the original on 18 February 2010. Retrieved 1 December 2009.
  3. ^Pohlmann, Ken C. (1989). The Compact Disc: A Handbook of Theory and Use. A-R Editions, Inc. ISBN .
  4. ^"Compact Disc". Archived from the original on 12 May 2016. Retrieved 6 May 2016.
  5. ^Sharpless, Graham (July 2003). "Introduction to CD and CD-ROM"(PDF). Deluxe Global Media Services Ltd. Archived(PDF) from the original on 9 March 2016. Retrieved 3 May 2016.
  6. ^"IEC 60908 Audio recording - Compact disc digital audio system". Archived from the original on 6 May 2016.
  7. ^"ISO/IEC 10149 Information technology -- Data interchange on read-only 120 mm optical data disks (CD-ROM)". Archived from the original on 6 May 2016.
  8. ^An Introduction to Digital Audio, John Watkinson, 1994
  9. ^Council on Library and Information Resources: Conditions that Affect CDs and DVDsArchived 15 September 2016 at the Wayback Machine
  10. ^Bosch, Xavier (2001). "Fungus eats CD". Nature. doi:10.1038/news010628-11. Archived from the original on 12 December 2013.
  11. ^"Fungus 'eats' CDs". BBC. June 2001. Archived from the original on 12 December 2013.
  12. ^"Philips DVD-R 8x (InfodiscR20) - Philips - Gleitz" (in German). 18 November 2006.
  13. ^"QPxTool glossary". qpxtool.sourceforge.io. QPxTool. 1 August 2008. Retrieved 22 July 2020.
  14. ^"Sony chairman credited with developing CDs dies", Fox News, 24 April 2011, archived from the original on 21 May 2013, retrieved 14 October 2012
  15. ^K.A. Schouhamer Immink (2018). "How we made the compact disc". Nature Electronics. 1. Retrieved 16 April 2018.
  16. ^K. Schouhamer Immink (2007). "Shannon, Beethoven, and the Compact Disc". IEEE Information Theory Society Newsletter. 57: 42–46. Retrieved 6 February 2018.
  17. ^Tim Buthe and Walter Mattli, The New Global Rulers: The Privatization of Regulation in the World Economy, Princeton University Press, Feb. 2011.
  18. ^"IEC 60908:1999

    If you don't have a credit score, it may be because there isn't enough information in your credit history, or because there aren't any records there at all. Credit scores are generated using scoring algorithms, or advanced statistical models that use the information in your credit history to assign you a three-digit score. Without enough credit history, the algorithm won't have enough information to fairly assess you and likely won't be able to assign you a credit score.

    Reasons You May Not Have a Credit Score

    There are a number of reasons you may not have enough credit history to generate a credit score, which can include:

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    1. You've only recently applied for credit for the first time. If you're new to credit and just applied for a new account, it may take some time before you see a credit score. Since credit scores are based on your past experience managing debt, in many cases you'll need to make several payments or have your new account open for a period of time before a scoring algorithm will have enough data to establish your credit score.

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    What Is a Good Credit Score?

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    How to Establish Credit

    The good news is that there are plenty of ways to build credit if you've never had experience with it before:

    1. Apply for a Secured Credit Card

    Secured credit cards are perfect for users trying to build a payment history from the ground up. They work like other credit cards when you make a purchase, but you must make a cash deposit when you open the account to back up your usage. That deposit, which is typically the same amount as your credit limit, is what "secures" the card.

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    You can also apply for a credit card with a cosigner who has solid payment history. This is a good option for students who are just starting out and can get a card with their parents. However, the cosigner should know that if you do miss payments or carry a huge balance, their credit scores will also be affected.

    1. Apply for a Retail Store Card

    The first credit cards for some people are often retail store cards, which can be easier to qualify for and typically offer lower credit limits. They can also qualify you for discounts on purchases at that retailer. If you don't have much history with credit, retail cards can be a possible option for establishing a credit history, but they can also include some pitfalls, like high interest rates and fees.

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    Credit-builder loans are solely designed to help you improve your credit score, so they function differently than other loans. Instead of giving you the loan amount up front, the lender sets it aside in a savings or certificate of deposit (CD) account.

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    A guide to secured credit cards

    If air fryer oven walmart credit isn’t its best or you are new to credit, your options can be limited. In fact, the New York Federal Reserve reports that in October 2020, 21.3% of consumers were rejected when applying for credit cards. But with a secured card, you can build your credit in a few months so that you can apply for a more rewarding unsecured card.

    Secured cards require a refundable deposit that you are borrowing off of for your available credit limit. In many cases, they may be your only option. But they are a great way to build credit and to develop good payment habits.

    We evaluated more than 200 secured credit cards using such criteria as: rates and fees, deposit amounts, ability to improve credit, customer service, and miscellaneous features and benefits. Below are our top picks for the best secured cards and further information to help you make your decision and improve your credit so you can qualify for even better offers.


    Comparing the best secured card offers

    Credit CardBest For:Minimum Deposit RequiredAnnual Fee
    Capital One Platinum Secured Credit CardNo annual fee$49, $99, or $200$0
    Capital One Quicksilver Secured Cash Rewards Credit CardFlat-rate rewards$200$0
    OpenSky® Secured Visa® Credit CardNo credit check$200$35
    Applied Bank Secured Visa® Gold Preferred® Credit CardLow interest$200$48
    Citi® Secured Mastercard®Building creditMinimum $200$0
    First Progress Platinum Elite Mastercard® Secured Credit CardWide acceptance$200 – $2,000$29
    Surge Secured Mastercard®Fast application process$300$69
    Discover it® Secured Credit CardCash back$200$0
    Self — Credit Builder Account + Secured Visa® Credit CardEstablishing creditSee TermsSee Terms
    First Progress Platinum Prestige Mastercard® Secured Credit CardBad credit$200-$2000$49
    Self — Credit Builder AccountGetting a small loanSee TermsSee Terms

    best secured cards of 2021

    Best Secured Credit Cards of 2021

    Capital One Platinum Secured Credit Card: Best secured credit card for no annual fee

    Overview: This card’s no annual fee makes it a great starter card. Also, the no foreign transaction fee makes it a good card for overseas travel or making purchases on foreign sites.

    Pros: The terms are fairly straightforward, and with responsible use, you could get a higher credit line in as soon as 6 months if you make your first 6 monthly payments on time.

    Cons: The Capital One Platinum Secured Credit Card offers no sign-up bonus or ongoing rewards.

    Read our full Capital One Platinum Secured Credit Card review.

    Capital One Quicksilver Secured Cash Rewards Credit Card: Best for flat-rate rewards

    Overview: This new credit card from Capital One combines consumer-friendly terms, like no annual fee and no foreign transaction fees, with unlimited 1.5% cash back on all purchases – a truly standout rewards program, particularly for a secured credit card.

    Pros: You’ll be automatically considered for a higher credit limit in as little as six months with demonstrated responsible use.

    Cons: If you’re trying to rebuild your credit and have mismanaged credit cards before, the opportunity to earn rewards could ultimately prove distracting. You might be better served by a no-frills secured credit, like the Capital One Platinum Secured Credit Card.

    Read our Capital One Quicksilver Secured Cash Rewards Credit Card review.

    OpenSky® Secured Visa® Credit Card: Best secured credit card for no credit check

    Overview: Unlike most credit cards, the OpenSky Secured Visa doesn’t require a credit check to apply. Also, you can build your credit history quickly because the card issuer reports to all three credit bureaus.

    Pros: No credit check is required with the OpenSky Secured Visa, which is a rarity for credit cards.

    Cons: There’s an annual fee, as well as fees for foreign transactions, inactivity and garnishment.

    Read our full OpenSky® Secured Visa® Credit Card review.

    Applied Bank Secured Visa® Gold Preferred® Credit Card: Best secured credit card for low interest

    Overview: There’s no intro 0% offer, but this low interest card comes with a top-of-the-line fixed APR: 9.99% for cardholders, and it won’t increase even if you’re late with a payment.

    Pros: There’s no minimum score or credit check required in the application process. Also, your credit card habits will be reported to major credit bureaus Experian, Equifax and TransUnion – a perk that can really help boost your credit score.

    Cons: The card comes with a $48 annual fee on top of the required refundable deposit. Plus, there are no rewards to be earned here.

    Read more about the Applied Bank Secured Visa® Gold Preferred® Credit Card.

    Citi® Secured Mastercard®: Best secured credit card for building credit

    Overview: Unlike a debit card, the Citi Secured Mastercard helps build your credit history because the issuer reports to all three major credit bureaus each month. Also, you may get free access to your FICO score online.

    Pros: There is no annual fee which is always a plus.

    Cons: The security deposit to get started with this card can vary from $200-$2,500 based on your credit qualifications. Also, like most other secured cards, there is no rewards program with the Citi Secured Mastercard.

    Read our full Citi® Secured Mastercard® review.

    First Progress Platinum Elite Mastercard® Secured Credit Card: Best secured credit card for wide acceptance

    Overview: Because the First Progress Platinum Elite is a Mastercard, it is widely accepted, making it a great go-to card for the traveler. (Note: You will pay a foreign transaction fee when using the card overseas.)

    Pros: This card has a new expedited processing option, which is handy if you are looking to get your new card quickly. Also, the First Progress Platinum Elite Mastercard Secured Credit Card doesn’t require a minimum score or credit history.

    Cons: While not as bad as others, this card’s fees can be onerous. It carries an annual fee of $29 and a variable APR of 19.99%.

    Read more about the First Progress Platinum Elite Mastercard® Secured Credit Card.

    Surge Secured Mastercard®: Best secured credit card for fast application process

    Overview: The Surge Secured Mastercard promises a fast and easy application process with results in seconds and, given its low barrier to entry from a credit standpoint, is an option for people with bad credit.

    Pros: It’s one of the few secured cards on the markets that offers rewards (1% cash back on all purchases). Card use is reported to all three credit bureaus and you’ll get free access to your Vantage 3.0 score from Experian when you sign up for e-statements.

    Cons: The ability to earn rewards might distract some cardholders from their credit-building goals, so you’ll want to be careful not to overspend in an attempt to earn cash back. Also, the card touts a number of high fees, including a $69 annual fee, up to a $40 late payment fee and a $30 additional card fee.

    Read more about the Surge Secured Mastercard®.

    Discover it® Secured Credit Card: Best secured credit card for cash back

    Overview: Earn 2% back at gas stations and restaurants for up to $1,000 in combined spend each quarter (then 1% cash back); plus, Discover will match your cash back at the end of your first year. That means, if you spend $300 a month at restaurants and gas stations, you will earn $6 a month, plus $72 at the end of your first year for the Cashback Match, coming to $144.

    Pros: With no annual fee and rewards to boot, this secured product offers another reason why it’s a good card for the long haul – Discover will automatically review your account after seven months to see if they can transition you to an unsecured card.

    Cons: There’s a lot to love about this card, but the regular APR is not one of them. Higher than the average APR for credit cards, which discover cd rate history 16.21%, the Discover it Secured Credit Card’s variable APR is one of the highest among secured cards.

    From our expert: “The Discover it Secured card is noteworthy because it offers rewards – a rarity among secured cards,” says CreditCards.com Industry Analyst Ted Rossman. “With no annual fee and 2% cash back* at restaurants and gas stations and 1% everywhere else, this card is a compelling introduction into the world of credit.”

    *2% on up to $1,000 in combined spend each quarter, then 1%

    Read our full Discover it® Secured Credit Card review.

    Self – Credit Builder Account + Secured Visa® Credit Bank of america com schedule an appointment Best secured product for establishing credit

    Overview: Whether you’re establishing your credit or repairing it, this unique card-and-account combination will help develop healthy credit habits while building a stronger credit mix – all without a credit check or history.

    Pros: Besides just earning interest on your “loan” deposit, you’re building credit on both your loan and credit card while other secured cards don’t. This strengthens your credit since 10% of a good credit score comes from a solid credit mix. Plus, you can extend your credit limit based on your account’s savings progress and stay on top of your credit score with credit monitoring and account alerts.

    Cons: Since the deposit is a “loan” and isn’t out-of-pocket, you can’t qualify for your card until you make three full consecutive payments and have at least $100 in your account without outstanding fees. On top of the one-time $9 account fee and yearly $25 annual card fee, be careful not to carry a balance since your monthly payments and credit card both carry APRs.

    Read more about the Self – Credit Builder Account + Secured Visa® Credit Card.

    First Progress Platinum Prestige Mastercard® Secured Credit Card: Best secured credit card for bad credit

    Overview: This card doesn’t require a credit history or minimum credit score for approval. Your card use is reported to all three major credit bureaus to help you build credit. Cardholders are required to put down a refundable security deposit of at least $200 to serve as the card’s credit limit.

    Pros: The card carries a regular variable APR of 9.99%, which is favorable for a secured credit card.

    Cons: There’s a $49 discover cd rate history fee, which is on the high side for a secured credit card.

    Read more about the First Progress Platinum Prestige Mastercard® Secured Credit Card.

    Self – Credit Builder Account: Best secured product for getting a small loan

    Overview: With this financial product, you basically get a small loan that funds an FDIC-insured certificate of deposit for 12 or for 24 months. Then, once the account’s term ends, you’ve built your credit and your CD unlocks.

    Pros: This is a good way to build credit for someone with an iffy score. There’s no hard pull on your credit, and it doesn’t matter where your credit stands when you begin.

    Cons: There’s an “administrative fee” that is on a sliding scale, depending on how much you pay into your “account.” So, if you pay $89 a month for 12 months, you pay a $12 administrative fee and you get $1,000 at the end of the year, $68 shy of what you’ve put in, bringing the total finance charge to $80.

    Read more about the Self – Credit Builder Account.

    Research Methodology

    Methodology: We analyzed 228 secured cards to identify the top products available for consumers. Core criteria we considered in our evaluation include:

    • Credit building features: With secured cards, you’ll often find features that can help you boost your credit score. We looked for options that will report your good habits, make it easy to track your score and more.
    • Credit needed: Accessibility is a key selling point for secured cards, so we made sure to find the best choices that allow for all ranges of credit scores. Even if you have no credit history whatsoever, there are secured cards here that can help.
    • Rates and fees: Some cards designed for poor credit scores feature penalizing fees and unfairly high rates. We avoided these as much as possible when selecting our top secured cards.

    Other criteria used: Ease of application, ability to increase credit limits, deposit required, other benefits and features, discover cd rate history service, security, rewards rates.

    What are secured cards?

    A secured credit card is a financial product designed for a consumer with bad credit or a limited credit history. It requires a refundable deposit in exchange for a credit limit. Most credit cards are unsecured credit cards, which means a security deposit isn’t required, but those aren’t always an option for everyone.

    Putting it simply, a secured card is a credit card that requires a cash deposit to start the account. The cash deposit gives card issuers a reason to accept lesser credit scores, and because having a credit card is the easiest and fastest way to build credit, a secured card can be worthwhile. Some even come with rewards and perks on top of the long-term credit opportunity.

    How do secured cards work?

    To give you a line of credit, lenders want to know that you’re likely to repay what you borrow. In many cases, a positive credit history provides the proof that credit card issuers need. That’s why it can be difficult to get approved for a credit card with a poor or limited credit history. Enter secured credit cards.

    Opening a secured account is initiated with a cash deposit, which acts as collateral rather than a balance that you can pull from to pay off your purchases. Once you’ve made your deposit, most secured cards act just like unsecured cards. You can use them to make purchases in person or online, and then routinely pay off those purchases with the ability to build your credit. If you don’t get your balances paid in a timely manner, you’ll face interest charges. In the worst case scenario where you start to default on payments, only then would your issuer start to pull from your deposit.

    There is one notable feature often seen with secured cards. Because you provide the card issuer with a security deposit upfront rather than getting in on your creditworthiness, you’ll often see issuers set your credit limit equal to the security deposit you provided. Depending on your financial flexibility, you might be able to deposit more than the minimum to get a higher credit limit when initiating. After getting started, a secured card works like any other card – you have a revolving line of credit that replenishes as you make payments.

    With some secured credit cards, you may be automatically considered for a credit line increase after several months of on-time payments. Not only does this give you more purchasing power, but it may also give your credit score a boost. Finally, once your score reaches the “good” range (a FICO score of 670+), you can begin shopping around for a credit card with better rewards, rates and benefits.

    Pros and cons of secured cards

    Pros of secured cards

    • Grow your credit score. If you’re in the market for a secured card, it’s likely that your credit score could be in better shape. A secured card gives you the opportunity to establish your score with regular reporting to credit bureaus, a key step in boosting your credit as long as you make regular payments.
    • Get into the right habits. Aside from the initial deposit, most secured cards work just like a traditional credit card. Using a secured product the right way will set you up for success when it comes time to upgrade to a better-tier card.
    • Generous acceptance. One benefit of secured cards is that the down payment allows most providers to accept almost anyone as a cardholder. Those who have suffered from bankruptcy or other financial woes have a tool to regain their credit with secured cards.

    Cons of secured cards

    • Money needed up front. It might be difficult to come up with the deposit needed to start your secured card account. If the hundreds-of-dollars down payment won’t work for you, there are other cards for poor credit that will allow you to start an account without any money down – an option for those in a tight situation.
    • High fees and rates. As these are cards for those with bad credit, many secured options have high APRs and fees. If you apply for a secured card, be sure you’re prepared to budget your spending and pay off your bills to avoid an expensive mistake.
    • Lack of rewards. Though you can find them with some cash back options here, most cards for bad credit don’t feature rewards. Unfortunately, secured cards are no different.

    How to get a secured credit card

    If your financial institution offers secured credit cards, you may be able to submit an application in person, by telephone, or through its website. If you’d prefer to see what cards are available outside of your bank or credit union, you can compare offers online, see what cards you may prequalify for and apply independently. Here’s how it works:

    1. Choose a card: First, do a little research to determine which secured card offer best aligns with your budget and spending behaviors. Secured cards may not always give much in the way of frills but that doesn’t mean you can’t land a competitive offer.
    2. Determine your deposit amount: Once you’ve found a secured credit card that feels right for you, you must then decide how much of a deposit you’d like to put down. In most cases, your deposit amount will be equal to your credit limit. It’s tempting to pay the minimum amount required but think honestly about how much you’ll routinely spend. Remember, using too much of your credit line can hurt your score, and a single trip to the supermarket can quickly eat into a $200 card limit.
    3. Apply: Submit your application. The issuer will ask you to provide personal details to confirm your identity such as your Social Security number, income, U.S. mailing address, and other basic information.
    4. Monitor application status: In most cases, the card issuer will reach a decision in a matter of seconds. Sometimes you may have to wait to receive a decision by mail. Many card issuers also allow you to check the status of the application by telephone or by logging on to their website. Once you’ve been approved, you may then pay your deposit amount and the issuer will mail the credit card to you. If the issuer has denied your application, you’ll receive a letter from the issuer explaining the reason for the decision.

    What credit score do you need to be approved for a secured credit card?

    Because you are not able to spend more than the cash deposit you provide, the issuer’s risk is much lower than it would be lending to someone with an unsecured credit card. For this reason, applicants with minimal or bad credit history are often approved for secured credit cards. To give you a better sense of what constitutes good, fair and bad credit, FICO goes by the following range:

    • Very poor: 300 to 579
    • Fair: 580 to 669
    • Good: 670 to 739
    • Very good: 740 to 799
    • Exceptional: 800 to 850

    Your choice in credit card should be based on your personal goals and finances. A secured credit card will require a cash deposit ranging from a few hundred dollars to several thousand. Determine what sort of credit limit makes the most sense for you and how much of an initial deposit that will require. If your card limit is on the lower end of the spectrum and you think you’ll routinely make purchases that eat up the majority of your available credit, understand that this type of high usage can impact your credit score. In these situations, a high limit secured card may be a better option.

    Aside from spending habits, you’ll also want to take into consideration any applicable rates and fees such as annual fees and foreign transaction fees, as well as any additional benefits. Though it’s rare, some secured cards do offer rewards, such as the Discover it® Secured Credit Card.

    When it comes to selecting a secured credit card, here are a few things you should be particularly wary of:

    • Hidden fees: While some fees are clearly marked in the “Schumer Box” at the top of cards’ rates and fees disclosures, lesser-known fees with credit-builder cards can be mentioned lower in the copy. They can have vague descriptions, such as “copy fee” or “telephone payment fee,” and can pile up fast. Heads up that secured cards can have the most fees.
    Источник: https://www.creditcards.com/secured/

    Triakis semifasciata

    Leopard Shark

    Leopard Shark. Photo © Jeremy Stafford-Deitsch

    Triakis semifasciata

    This long, slim shark likes the sandy bottoms of bays or estuaries in the eastern Pacific Ocean. It has a broad, short snout, triangular fins, and a notched, asymmetrical caudal (tail) fin. On the dorsal side, it exhibits a silver or bronzed-gray coloration, fading to white underneath, with distinct black saddle marks on its back and sides, as well as extending out onto its fins (Compagno, 2005). Generally, this shark can be found to be between 20 and 50 inches long but can grow up to 6 feet long, specializing on a diet of invertebrates and small fish. Because of the high mercury content of its flesh, there are warnings about consuming this shark (Davis et. al, 2002).

    Order: Carcharhiniformes
    Family: Triakidae
    Genus: Triakis
    Species: semifasciata

    Common Names

    • English: leopard shark, leopard catshark
    • Dutch: luipaardhaai
    • Finnish: leopardihai
    • French: virli léopard
    • German: leopardhai
    • Portuguese: turbarão-leopardo
    • Spanish (Mexico): tiburón leopardo
    • Spanish (Spain): tollo leopard

     

    Importance to Humans

    Leopard shark. Photo courtesy NOAA

    Commercial and sport fishermen harvest the leopard shark (Compagno, 2005). The shark is used primarily as a food source and is sold both fresh and frozen.

    Danger to Humans

    The leopard shark poses virtually no danger to humans. The International Shark Attack File has a single report of an incident involving a human and a leopard shark. This incident did not reportedly cause any significant damage to the victim, and no bite was involved. However, leopard sharks do contain high levels of mercury and should not be consumed regularly, as per the warnings of the California Department of Fish & Game.

    Conservation

    Due to the relatively late age of first reproduction, the slow growth rate, and the low reproduction rate, the leopard shark is potentially threatened by over-fishing (Compagno, 2005). However, the shark is not currently listed as an endangered or threatened species. Management of this species in recent years is thought to have protected the core population of this species in waters off California and Oregon (US) (Cailliet, 1992). The status of stocks off Mexico is currently unknown.

    > Check the status of the leopard shark at the IUCN website.

    The leopard shark is considered to be at “Least Concern” by the World Conservation Union (IUCN). The IUCN is a global union of states, governmental agencies, and non-governmental organizations in a partnership that assesses the conservation status of species.

    Geographical Distribution

    World distribution map for the leopard shark

    Leopard sharks have a relatively narrow range, found in the Eastern Pacific Ocean from Oregon to the Gulf of California in Mexico (Compagno, 2005). Large populations occur in San Francisco Bay, and other large estuaries (Davis et. al, 2002; Smith and Abramson, 1990).

    Habitat

    The leopard shark is most commonly found in sandy or muddy bays and estuaries either at or near the bottom. The shark is most commonly encountered in 20 feet (6.1 meters) of water or less but has been sighted up to 300 feet (91.4 meters) deep. Leopard sharks seem to prefer cool and warm temperate waters (Compagno, 2005).

    Biology

    Leopard shark. Illustration courtesy Field Guide to Eastern Pacific and Hawaiian Sharks, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service 1967

    Distinctive Features

    The leopard shark has a relatively broad and short snout. The prominent rounded dorsal fin of this shark originates over the inner margins of its pectoral fins. The second dorsal fin is pointed and averages about three-quarters the size of the first dorsal fin. The anal fin is diminutive in comparison to the leopard shark’s second dorsal fin. The pectoral fins of the leopard shark are rather broad and roughly triangular in shape. The upper lobe of the tail is notched and elongated.

    The leopard shark could possibly be mistaken for the swell shark (Cephaloscyllium ventriosum), which is reddish-brown and has a flattened head.

    Leopard shark. Illustration courtesy Field Guide to Eastern Pacific and Hawaiian Sharks, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service 1967

    Research has indicated that the erythrocytes (red blood cells) of the leopard shark are more diminutive and numerous than those of its relatives, the brown smooth-hound (Mustelus henlei) and the gray smoothhound (Mustelus californicus). This could theoretically provide the leopard shark with an edge over its chief competitors in estuarine environments by allowing the leopard shark to more easily absorb oxygen from the water (Lai et. al, 1990).

    The leopard shark is a strong swimmer and it often forms large nomadic schools that sometimes include brown smooth-hounds (Mustelus henlei), gray smooth-hounds (Mustelus californicus), and spiny dogfish (Squalus acanthias) (Compagno, 2005).

     

    Coloration

    The leopard shark is conspicuously covered with dark saddles and splotches. The dorsal surface of the animal varies in coloration from silver to a bronzed gray. The ventral surface of the animal is lighter and sometimes white (Compagno, 2005).

    Dentition

    Leopard sharks produce tooth sets that form overlapping ridges between different tooth rows. The resulting effect is a large flattened and ridged surface on the upper and lower jaws. This type of dentition is often referred to as “pavement-toothed” (Motta, 2001; Vennemann, 2001).

    Leopard shark with yellow tag through dorsal fin. Photo courtesy National Marine Fisheries Service

    Size, Age, and Growth

    Leopard sharks can reach lengths of up to 7 ft (2.13 m), but it is rare to find an individual larger than 6 ft (1.83 m). The average size of an adult leopard shark is between 50 and 60 inches (120cm to 150 cm). Pups are born at a size of 8 to 9 inches (0.20 to 0.23 m). The sharks reach maturity at a size of 3 to 3.5 ft (0.91 to 1.07 m) (Compagno, 2005).

    Food Habits

    Leopard sharks feed primarily on benthic invertebrates and small fish (Compagno, 2005). Their diet includes invertebrates such as crabs, shrimp, octopi, fat innkeeper worms (Urechis caupo), clam siphons, and fish such as midshipmen, sanddabs, shiner perch, bat rays, smoothhounds, and a variety of fish eggs (Ebert, 2005; Talent, 1976). Leopard sharks have been known to mutilate their prey, taking only parts of the animals they ingest, leaving the rest. For example, a number of clam siphons have been found in multiple specimens of leopard shark (Talent, 1976). However, a body of a consumed clam has not been reported to be found.

    Leopard sharks feed on many species of fish including bat rays. Photo courtesy Tony Chess/National Marine Fisheries Service

    Reproduction

    Female leopard sharks are ovoviviparous and can produce litters of 4 to 29 pups (Compagno, 2005). The gestation period of the shark is between ten and twelve months, and birth usually occurs between April and May (Hight, 2007).

    Predators
    Marine mammals prey upon young leopard sharks, and both juveniles and adults are vulnerable to large fish, including the white shark discover cd rate history carcharias).

    Taxonomy

    Girard first documented the leopard shark as Triakis semifasciatum in 1855. Since then, the species name has been modified to semifasciata. The genus Triakis is derived from the Greek word “triakis” translated as three pointed, referring to this shark’s three pointed teeth, while the species name semifasciata means half-banded, describing the distinctive markings found on this shark.

     

    Revised by Tyler Bowling 2020

    Prepared by: Bryan Delius

     

    References

    • Cailliet, G. 1992. Demography of the central California population of the Leopard Shark (Triakis semifasciata). Marine and Freshwater Research, 43(1), 183.
    • Compagno, L., Dando, M., & Fowler, S. 2005. A field guide to the Sharks of the world. London: Collins.
    • Davis, J., May, M., Greenfield, B., Fairey, R., Roberts, C., Ichikawa, G., Stoelting, M., Becker, J. and Tjeerdema, R. 2002. Contaminant concentrations in sport fish from San Francisco Bay, 1997. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 44(10), pp. 1117-1129.
    • Ebert, D. A., and Ebert, T. B. 2005. Reproduction, diet, and habitat use of leopard sharks, Triakis semifasciata, in Humboldt Bay, California. Marine and Freshwater Research 56(8), 1089-1098.
    • Hight, B. V., and Lowe, C. G. 2007. Elevated body temperatures of adult female leopard sharks, Triakis semifasciata, while aggregating in shallow nearshore embayments: Evidence for behavioral thermoregulation? Journal of Experimental Biology and Marine Ecology 352, 114-128.
    • Lai, N. C., Graham, J. B., and Burnett, L. 1990. Blood respiratory properties and the effect of swimming on blood gas transport in the leopard shark Triakis semifasciata. Journal of Experimental Biology 151, 161-173.
    • Motta, P. J., Wilga, C. D. 2001. Advances in the study of feeding behaviors, mechanisms, and mechanics of sharks. Environmental Biology of Fishes 60, 131-156.
    • Smith, S. E., and Abramson, N. J. 1990. Leopard shark Triakis semifasciata distribution, mortality rate, yield, and stock replenishment estimates based on a tagging study in San Francisco Bay. US National Marine Fisheries Service Fishery Bulletin 88, 371-81.
    • Talent, L.G. 1976. Food habits of the leopard shark, Triakis semifasciata, in Elkhorn Slough, Monterey Bay, California. California Fish and Game 62(4), 286-298.
    • Vennemann, T., Hegner, E. Cliff, G. & Benz, G. 2001. Isotopic composition of recent shark teeth as a proxy for environmental conditions. Geochimica et Cos
    Источник: https://www.floridamuseum.ufl.edu/discover-fish/species-profiles/triakis-semifasciata/

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    Bond Wizard

    Non-deposit investment products: NOT FDIC INSURED/NO BANK GUARANTEE/MAY LOSE VALUE.

    Fixed income products are subject to availability and change in price. Availability of products and services may vary by jurisdiction.

    Investments in fixed income products are subject to liquidity (or market) risk, interest rate risk (bonds ordinarily decline in price when interest rates rise and rise in price when interest rates fall), financial (or credit) risk, inflation (or purchasing power) risk and special tax liabilities. May be worth less than the original cost upon redemption.

    TD Ameritrade is not responsible for ensuring that your use of the Bond Wizard tool is suitable for your specific financial situation.

    You may want to consult an attorney or tax professional regarding the bonds you select for your portfolio prior to purchasing them. You must perform your own evaluation of whether the securities held in your portfolio are consistent with your investment objectives, risk tolerance and financial situation.

    This is not an offer or solicitation in any jurisdiction where we are not authorized to do business or where such offer or solicitation would be contrary to the local laws and regulations of that jurisdiction, including, but not limited to persons residing in Australia, Canada, Hong Kong, Japan, Saudi Arabia, Singapore, UK, and the countries of the European Union.

    TD Ameritrade, Inc., member FINRA/SIPC, a subsidiary of The Charles Schwab Corporation. TD Ameritrade is a trademark jointly owned by TD Ameritrade IP Company, Inc. and The Toronto-Dominion Bank. ©2021 Charles Schwab & Co. Inc. All rights reserved.

    Источник: https://www.tdameritrade.com/research/bonds-and-cds/bond-wizard.html

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